1. art: magic.
2. allay: pacify.
4. welkiu's cheek: sky's face.
6. brave: splendid.
11. or ere: before.
13. fraughting souls: cargo of souls. collected: composed.
14. amazement: terror. piteous: pitying.
16. but: except.
19. more better: of higher rank (common Elizabethan double comparative).
20. full: very.
21. no greater: i.e., of no loftier position than is implied by his "full poor cell."
22. meddle with: mingle with, enter.
26. wreck: shipwreck.
27. virtue: essence.
28. provision: foresight.
29. soul:. The sentence changes its course in what follows, but the sense is plain.
30. perdition: loss.
31. Betid: happened.
32. which: whom.
35. bootless inquisition: useless inquiry.
38. Obey: i.e., listen.
41. Out: fully.
45. assurance: certainty.
46. remembrance warrants: memory guarantees.
50. backward and abysm of time: abyss of the past.
51. aught: anything.
56. piece: masterpiece. virtue: chastity.
59. no worse issued: no less noble in birth.
63. blessedly holp: providentially helped.
64. teen: sorrow, trouble. turn'd you to: reminded you of.
65. from: out of.
68. next: next to.
70. manage: management, administration.
71. signories: city states.
72. prime: chief, first in rank.
76. to my state grew stranger: i.e., withdrew from my responsibilities as duke.
79. perfected: grown skillful.
81. trash for overtopping: restrain from becoming too powerful. Two images are combined here: trash = check a hunting dog from going too fast; overtopping = growing too high.
82. or: either.
83. key: (1) key to office; (2) tuning key.
87. verdure: vigor, vitality. on't: of it.
90. closeness: seclusion.
92. O'er-prized all popular rate: had greater worth than any vulgar evaluation would place upon it.
94. good parent: That a good parent often bred a bad child was proverbial. of: in.
97. sans: without. lorded: i.e., established in a position of power.
99. else: otherwise, additionally.
100. into: unto, against (into truth modifies sinner).
102. To: as to.
103-105. out o' the substitution / And executing the outward face of royalty, / With all prerogative: as a result of his making himself my substitute and carrying out all the visible functions of royalty with all its rights and privileges.
107-108. no screen between this part he play'd / And him he play'd it for: i.e., no separation between acting as Duke and being Duke.
109. Absolute Milan: actual Duke of Milan.
110. temporal royalties: practical administration.
111. confederates: makes alliance.
112. dry: thirsty. sway: power.
113. him: i.e., the King of Naples.
114. his coronet to his crown: Antonio's coronet to the King of Naples' crown. bend: make bow down.
115. yet: hitherto.
117. condition: pact. event: outcome.
119. but: other than.
122. hearkens: listens to.
123. he: the King of Naples. in lieu o' the premises: in return for the pledge.
125. presently extirpate: immediately remove.
131. ministers for the purpose: agents employed to do this. thence: from there.
134. hint: occasion.
135. wrings: (1) constrains; (2) extracts moisture from.
138. impertinent: irrelevant. Wherefore: why.
139. demanded: asked. wench: (Here a term of endearment.)
141-142. set / A mark so bloody: i.e., make obvious their murderous intent. (From the practice of marking with the blood of the prey those who have participated in a successful hunt.)
143. With colours fairer painted their foul ends: i.e., undertook to accomplish the same end by less violent means.
144. In few: in short. bark: ship.
146. butt: tub.
151. Did us but loving wrong: i.e., only added to our discomfort.
154. Infused: filled, suffused.
155. deck'd: (1) adorned; (2) covered.
156. which: i.e., Miranda's smile.
157. undergoing stomach: courage to endure.
164. stuffs: supplies.
165. steaded: been of use. so, of: similarly, out of. gentleness: character proper to one of high birth and cultivation.
167. volumes: i.e., books of magic.
168. Would: I wish.
169. But ever: i.e., someday.
170. sea-sorrow: sorrowful adventure at sea.
172. more profit: profit more.
173. princes: The title "prince" could be used to honor either sex.
174. vainer: more foolishly spent.
176. beating: working violently.
179. my dear lady: i.e., favorable to me.
181. zenith: height of fortune (astrological term).
182. influence: astrological power.
183. omit: ignore.
185. good dullness: timely sleepiness.
186. give it way: let it happen (i.e., don't fight it).
187. Come away: come here.
192. task: make demands upon.
193. quality: (1) skill; (2) cohorts, minor spirits under him.
194. to point: in detail.
196. beak: prow.
197. waist: midship. deck: poop deck at the stern.
198. flam'd amazement: struck terror by appearing as the flamelike phenomenon called St. Elmo's fire.
200. boresprit: bowsprit. distinctly: in separate places.
203. sight-outrunning: swifter than sight. were not: could not have been.
204. Neptune: Roman god of the sea.
206. trident: three-pronged weapon. brave: splendid.
207. coil: uproar.
209. of the mad: such as madmen have.
212. Then all afire with me: Many editors repunctuate lines 211-12 so as to make this phrase modify vessel rather than son.
213. up-staring: standing on end.
218. sustaining garments: garments that bore them up in the water.
219. badest: ordered.
220. troops: groups.
222. cooling of: cooling.
223. angle: corner.
224. in this sad knot: i.e., crossed thus (Ariel illustrates with a gesture). Crossed arms indicated melancholy.
227. nook: inlet, small bay.
228. dew: (Collected at midnight for magical purposes; compare with line 321.)
229. still-vex'd Bermoothes: always stormy Bermuda islands.
231. with a charm: by means of a magic spell. their suff'red labor: the labor they have endured.
234. float: flood, sea.
239. mid season: noon.
240. glasses: hourglasses.
242. pains: duties, chores.
243. remember: remind.
250. bate: remit.
252. ooze: mud at sea-bottom.
255. do me: do for me. veins: underground streams, which were thought to correspond to veins of the body.
256. baked: hardened.
258. envy: malice.
259. grown into a hoop: i.e., so bent over with age as to resemble a hoop.
261. Argier: Algiers.
266. one thing she did: (Perhaps a reference to her pregnancy, for which her life would be spared.)
269. blue-ey'd: with dark circles around the eyes, implying pregnancy. with child: pregnant.
272. for: because.
274. hests: commands.
281. as mill-wheels strike: as the blades of a mill wheel strike the water.
282. Save: except.
283. whelp: offspring.
284. Yes, Caliban her son: (Ariel is probably concurring with Prospero's comment about a "freckled whelp," not contradicting the point about "A human shape.")
285. Dull thing, I say so: i.e., Exactly, that's what I said, you dullard.
292. gape: open wide.
295. his: its.
297. correspondent: obedient.
298. do my spriting gently: perform my tasks as a spirit ungrudgingly.
307. Heaviness: drowsiness.
311. miss: do without.
312. offices: functions, duties.
316. when: a common expression of impatience.
317. quaint: clever, ingenious.
319. got: begotten, sired.
320. dam: mother. (Used of animals)
321. wicked: harmful.
322. fen: marsh, bog.
323. south-west: southwest wind, thought to bring pestilence.
326. urchins: hedgehogs; here, goblins in the shape of hedgehogs.
327. for that vast of night that they may work: during that long and desolate period of darkness during which they are permitted to perform their mischief. It was thought that malignant spirits lost their power with the coming of day.
330. 'em: i.e., cells of the honeycomb.
335. the bigger light, and how the less: i.e., the sun and the moon. (See Genesis 1:16: "God then made two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the less light to rule the night.")
339. charms: spells.
342. sty: confine as in a sty.
345. stripes: lashes.
346. human: humane.
350. peopled else: otherwise populated.
352. print: imprint, impression.
357. purposes: meanings, desires.
358. race: nature.
364. red-plague: plague that produces red sores. rid: destroy.
365. learning: teaching. Hag-seed: Offspring of a female demon.
366. thou'rt best: you had better.
367. answer other business: perform other tasks.
369. old: i.e., such as old people have.
370. aches: (Pronounced "aitches.")
373. Setebos: (A god of the Patagonians, named in Richard Eden's "History of Travel," 1577.)
377. Courtsied when you have: when you have curtsied.
378. whist: being hushed.
379. featly: nimbly.
380. sprites: spirits. the burthen bear: bear the burden; i.e., the bass undersong.
***. dispersedly: from several directions.
389. waits upon: serves, attends.
390. bank: sandbank.
393. passion: sorrow.
394. thence: i.e., from the bank on which I sat.
403. knell: announcement of a death by the tolling of a bell.
406. ditty: words of the song. remember: commemorate.
408. owes: owns.
409. advance: raise.
412. brave: excellent, splendid.
415. but: except that. something stain'd: somewhat disfigured.
416. canker: worm that eats blossoms.
420. It: i.e., the charm.
423. airs: i.e., the music he has heard. Vouchsafe: Grant.
424. remain: dwell.
426. bear me: conduct myself. prime: first, most important.
427. wonder: (Miranda's name means "to be wondered at.")
428. maid: i.e., a human maiden, not a goddess.
430. best: first in rank.
433. single: solitary (because he thinks that he and the King are one and the same), but he probably has in mind also the senses "deserted" and "helpless."
434. Naples: the King of Naples. He does hear me: I who hear my own words am the King of Naples.
435. And that he does I weep: i.e., and I weep at this reminder that my father is seemingly dead, leaving me heir.
436. at ebb: dry (a part of the continued sea-imagery in the play).
439. his brave son: (Not mentioned elsewhere in the play.)
440. more braver: more splendid. control: refute.
442. chang'd eyes: exchanged loving looks.
444. done yourself some wrong: An ironically polite way of charging him with lying.
451. both in either's: each in the other's.
452. uneasy: difficult. light: easy.
454. attend: follow, obey.
455. owest: ownest.
457. on't: of it.
460. strive to dwell with't: i.e., expel the evil and occupy the "temple," or the body.
466. entertainment: treatment.
467 s.d. charmed: magically prevented.
468. rash: harsh.
469. gentle: of high birth. fearful: cowardly.
470. My foot my tutor?: i.e., Do you, as my daughter and thus bound to me by obedience, dare presume to teach me what to do?
472. ward: position of defense (in fencing).
473. stick: staff.
476. surety: guarantee.
481. To: in comparison with.
482. affections: inclinations.
485. nerves: sinews.
487. spirits: vital powers.
490. light: unimportant.
492. corners else: other corners, regions.
496. do me: do for me.
498. unwonted: unusual.
500. then: if so, then.