Philip Weller caricature
Philip and Weller hugging

Welcome to my web site, now under development for more than twenty years.   
-- Philip Weller, November 13, 1941 - February 1, 2021
Dr. Weller, an Eastern Washington University professor of English and Shakespearean scholar for more than 50 years.

Julius Caesar :   Act 3, Scene 1

      Flourish. Enter CAESAR, BRUTUS,   Flourish Trumpet call, announcing the
      CASSIUS, CASCA, DECIUS, METELLUS,   entrance of a V.I.P.
      and the SOOTHSAYER.   
      The ides of March are come.   
      Ay, Caesar; but not gone.   
      Hail, Caesar! read this schedule.   schedule document (This is the letter that
    Artemidorus wrote to warn Caesar that he is in
      DECIUS   danger.)
      Trebonius doth desire you to o'erread,   o'erread read over, consider
3.1.5      At your best leisure, this his humble suit.   At . . . leisure i.e., as soon as you have time
    suit petition (Decius hands Caesar another
      ARTEMIDORUS   letter.)
      O Caesar, read mine first; for mine's a suit   
      That touches Caesar nearer: read it, great Caesar.   touches Caesar nearer concerns Caesar more
      What touches us ourself shall be last served.   us ourself i.e., me personally (Caesar is using the
    royal plural, as though he's already a king.)
      ARTEMIDORUS   served attended to
      Delay not, Caesar; read it instantly.   
3.1.10      What, is the fellow mad?   
                                   Sirrah, give place.   Sirrah low fellow | give place get out of the way
      What, urge you your petitions in the street?   
      Come to the Capitol.   
      [CAESAR enters the Capitol,   enters the Capitol i.e., goes upstage >>>
      the rest following.]   
      I wish your enterprise to-day may thrive.   
      What enterprise, Popilius?   
                                    Fare you well.   
      [Popilius goes to CAESAR.]   
3.1.15      What said Popilius Lena?   
      He wish'd to-day our enterprise might thrive.   
      I fear our purpose is discovered.   
      Look, how he makes to Caesar; mark him.   makes to walks toward | mark pay attention to
      Casca, be sudden, for we fear prevention.   prevention being thwarted
3.1.20      Brutus, what shall be done? If this be known,   this i.e., their plot against Caesar
      Cassius or Caesar never shall turn back,   turn back i.e., leave the Capitol (Cassius vows
      For I will slay myself.   that if he doesn't kill Caesar he will kill himself.)
                                  Cassius, be constant:   constant steady, resolute
      Popilius Lena speaks not of our purposes;   
      For, look, he smiles, and Caesar doth not change.   change change color, show any marked reaction
3.1.25      Trebonius knows his time; for, look you, Brutus.   his time i.e., the right time to play his part in the
      He draws Mark Antony out of the way.   plot
      [Exeunt ANTONY and TREBONIUS.]   
      Where is Metellus Cimber? Let him go   
      And presently prefer his suit to Caesar.   presently prefer his suit immediately present his
      He is address'd: press near and second him.   address'd ready | second him back him up
3.1.30      Casca, you are the first that rears your hand.   rears raises (to stab Caesar)
      Are we all ready? What is now amiss   
      That Caesar and his senate must redress?   
      Most high, most mighty, and most puissant Caesar,   puissant powerful
      Metellus Cimber throws before thy seat   
3.1.35      An humble heart—   
                            I must prevent thee, Cimber.   prevent forestall
      These couchings and these lowly courtesies   couchings . . . courtesies stooping, bowing,
      Might fire the blood of ordinary men,   kneeling | fire the blood of influence, thrill
      And turn preordinance and first decree   preordinance and first decree i.e., immutable law
      Into the law of children. Be not fond   the law of children i.e., whimsical rules
3.1.40      To think that Caesar bears such rebel blood   Be not fond / To don't be so foolish as to
      That will be thaw'd from the true quality   rebel unruly | true quality natural stability
      With that which melteth fools; I mean, sweet words,   
      Low-crooked court'sies and base spaniel-fawning.   Low-crooked court'sies groveling bows
      Thy brother by decree is banished:   
3.1.45      If thou dost bend and pray and fawn for him,   
      I spurn thee like a cur out of my way.   spurn kick
      Know, Caesar doth not wrong, nor without cause   Caesar . . . satisfied i.e., Caesar does not punish
      Will he be satisfied.   without good reason, and will not remit
    punishment without good reason
      Is there no voice more worthy than my own   
3.1.50      To sound more sweetly in great Caesar's ear   
      For the repealing of my banish'd brother?   repealing recalling (from exile)
      I kiss thy hand, but not in flattery, Caesar;   
      Desiring thee that Publius Cimber may   
      Have an immediate freedom of repeal.   freedom of repeal freedom to return (from exile)
3.1.55      What, Brutus!   
                        Pardon, Caesar; Caesar, pardon:   
      As low as to thy foot doth Cassius fall,   
      To beg enfranchisement for Publius Cimber.   enfranchisement restoration of full civic rights
      I could be well moved, if I were as you:   moved influenced, affected
      If I could pray to move, prayers would move me:   pray entreat, beg, appeal
3.1.60      But I am constant as the northern star,   the northern star Polaris, the North Star
      Of whose true-fix'd and resting quality   resting stable, unmoving
      There is no fellow in the firmament.   fellow equal
      The skies are painted with unnumber'd sparks,   
      They are all fire and every one doth shine,   
3.1.65      But there's but one in all doth hold his place:   his i.e., its
      So in the world; 'tis furnish'd well with men,   
      And men are flesh and blood, and apprehensive;   apprehensive intelligent, capable of understanding
      Yet in the number I do know but one   
      That unassailable holds on his rank,   holds on his rank maintains his position
3.1.70      Unshaked of motion: and that I am he,   Unshaked of motion unmoved by outside
      Let me a little show it, even in this;   influences, and unaffected by pleas
      That I was constant Cimber should be banish'd,   constant resolute
      And constant do remain to keep him so.   
      O Caesar—   
                     Hence! wilt thou lift up Olympus?   Olympus mountain which is the abode of the gods
3.1.75      Great Caesar—   
                        Doth not Brutus bootless kneel?   bootless in vain (Caesar's point is that if Brutus
    can't change Caesar's mind, no one can.)
      Speak, hands for me!   Speak plead, strike >>>
      They stab CAESAR.   
      Et tu, Brute?— Then fall, Caesar!   Et tu, Brute? and you Brutus?
      Liberty! Freedom! Tyranny is dead!   
      Run hence, proclaim, cry it about the streets.   
3.1.80      Some to the common pulpits, and cry out   common pulpits public platforms
      "Liberty, freedom, and enfranchisement!"   enfranchisement i.e., restoration of full citizenship
      People and senators, be not affrighted;   
      Fly not; stand stiff: ambition's debt is paid.   Fly flee, run away | stand stiff stay where you are
    ambition's debt is paid i.e., Caesar has paid for his
      CASCA   ambition
      Go to the pulpit, Brutus.   
                                     And Cassius too.   
3.1.85      Where's Publius?   Publius (An old senator, not a member of the
    conspiracy against Caesar.)
      Here, quite confounded with this mutiny.   confounded with amazed by | mutiny uproar
      Stand fast together, lest some friend of Caesar's   Stand . . . chance i.e., stick together and stay here,
      Should chance—   in case a friend of Caesar's (attacks us)
      Talk not of standing. Publius, good cheer;   good cheer i.e., don't worry, be happy
3.1.90      There is no harm intended to your person,   
      Nor to no Roman else: so tell them, Publius.   else i.e., other than Caesar
      And leave us, Publius; lest that the people,   
      Rushing on us, should do your age some mischief.   age your old self | mischief harm
      Do so: and let no man abide this deed,   abide take the consequences of
3.1.95      But we the doers.   
      [Exeunt all but the Conspirators.]   
      Enter TREBONIUS  
      Where is Antony?   
                           Fled to his house amazed:   amazed stupefied
      Men, wives and children stare, cry out and run   
      As it were doomsday.   As as if
                               Fates, we will know your pleasures:   
      That we shall die, we know; 'tis but the time   That . . . know (Because everyone dies.)
3.1.100      And drawing days out, that men stand upon.   the time the exact time of death
    drawing days out prolonging life
      CASSIUS   stand upon concern themselves with >>>
      Why, he that cuts off twenty years of life   
      Cuts off so many years of fearing death.   
      Grant that, and then is death a benefit:   
      So are we Caesar's friends, that have abridged   
3.1.105      His time of fearing death. Stoop, Romans, stoop,   
      And let us bathe our hands in Caesar's blood   
      Up to the elbows, and besmear our swords:   
      Then walk we forth, even to the market-place,   even to the market-place i.e., right into the Forum
      And, waving our red weapons o'er our heads,   
3.1.110      Let's all cry "Peace, freedom and liberty!"   
      Stoop, then, and wash. How many ages hence   
      Shall this our lofty scene be acted over   acted over repeatedly portrayed (on stage)
      In states unborn and accents yet unknown!   accents languages (The play you are reading is in
    English, which didn't exist when Caesar died.)
      How many times shall Caesar bleed in sport,   in sport for entertainment
3.1.115      That now on Pompey's basis lies along   on Pompey's basis lies along lies flat next to the
      No worthier than the dust!   pedestal of Pompey's statue
                                     So oft as that shall be,   
      So often shall the knot of us be call'd   knot group, fellowship
      The men that gave their country liberty.   
      What, shall we forth?   shall we forth? shall we go?
                                Ay, every man away:   
3.1.120      Brutus shall lead; and we will grace his heels   grace his heels i.e., do honor to him in a triumphal
      With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome.   procession
      Enter a Servant.   
      Soft! who comes here? A friend of Antony's.   Soft! hold on!; wait a minute!
      Thus, Brutus, did my master bid me kneel:   
      Thus did Mark Antony bid me fall down;   
3.1.125      And, being prostrate, thus he bade me say:   
      Brutus is noble, wise, valiant, and honest;   honest honorable
      Caesar was mighty, bold, royal, and loving:   
      Say I love Brutus, and I honour him;   
      Say I fear'd Caesar, honour'd him and loved him.   
3.1.130      If Brutus will vouchsafe that Antony   
      May safely come to him, and be resolved   be resolved have explained to him
      How Caesar hath deserved to lie in death,   
      Mark Antony shall not love Caesar dead   
      So well as Brutus living; but will follow   
3.1.135      The fortunes and affairs of noble Brutus   
      Thorough the hazards of this untrod state   Thorough through | untrod state unprecedented
      With all true faith. So says my master Antony.   state of affairs
      Thy master is a wise and valiant Roman;   
      I never thought him worse.   
3.1.140      Tell him, so please him come unto this place,   so if it should
      He shall be satisfied; and, by my honour,   be satisfied i.e., receive a full explanation
      Depart untouch'd.   
                           I'll fetch him presently.   presently immediately
      Exit Servant.   
      I know that we shall have him well to friend.   well to friend firmly our friend
      I wish we may: but yet have I a mind   
3.1.145      That fears him much; and my misgiving still   fears distrusts
      Falls shrewdly to the purpose.   my . . . purpose my misgivings always turn out
    to be painfully true
      Enter ANTONY.   
      But here comes Antony. Welcome, Mark Antony.   
      O mighty Caesar! dost thou lie so low?   
      Are all thy conquests, glories, triumphs, spoils,   
3.1.150      Shrunk to this little measure? Fare thee well!   
      I know not, gentlemen, what you intend,   
      Who else must be let blood, who else is rank:   must be let blood has to be bled (to cure a disease)
      If I myself, there is no hour so fit   rank festering, diseased (and in need of bleeding)
      As Caesar's death hour, nor no instrument   
3.1.155      Of half that worth as those your swords, made rich   
      With the most noble blood of all this world.   
      I do beseech ye, if you bear me hard,   bear me hard have a grudge against me
      Now, whilst your purpled hands do reek and smoke,   purpled bloody | reek steam (with Caesar's blood)
      Fulfil your pleasure. Live a thousand years,   Live if I live
3.1.160      I shall not find myself so apt to die:   apt ready
      No place will please me so, no mean of death,   mean means
      As here by Caesar, and by you cut off,   
      The choice and master spirits of this age.   choice elite
      O Antony, beg not your death of us.   
3.1.165      Though now we must appear bloody and cruel,   
      As, by our hands and this our present act,   
      You see we do, yet see you but our hands   You see we do you see what we have done
      And this the bleeding business they have done:   but only
      Our hearts you see not; they are pitiful;   pitiful full of pity (for Caesar)
3.1.170      And pity to the general wrong of Rome—   to for | wrong of Rome wrong done to Rome
      As fire drives out fire, so pity pity—   pity pity i.e., pity for Rome drives pity for Caesar
      Hath done this deed on Caesar. For your part,   on to
      To you our swords have leaden points, Mark Antony.   leaden (Lead is soft and does not take a point.)
      Our arms, in strength of malice, and our hearts   in strength of with the same strength they had in
3.1.175      Of brothers' temper, do receive you in   temper feeling, disposition
      With all kind love, good thoughts, and reverence.   receive you in take you in, embrace you
      Your voice shall be as strong as any man's   voice vote, influence
      In the disposing of new dignities.   disposing of new dignities i.e., choosing new state
    officers (such as judges, military commanders, etc.)
      Only be patient till we have appeased   appeased calmed
3.1.180      The multitude, beside themselves with fear,   
      And then we will deliver you the cause,   deliver you the cause explain to you the reason
      Why I, that did love Caesar when I struck him,   
      Have thus proceeded.   Have thus proceeded have taken this action
                               I doubt not of your wisdom.   
      Let each man render me his bloody hand:   render give
3.1.185      First, Marcus Brutus, will I shake with you;   
      Next, Caius Cassius, do I take your hand;   
      Now, Decius Brutus, yours: now yours, Metellus;   
      Yours, Cinna; and, my valiant Casca, yours;   
      Though last, not last in love, yours, good Trebonius.   
3.1.190      Gentlemen all,—alas, what shall I say?   
      My credit now stands on such slippery ground,   credit credibility
      That one of two bad ways you must conceit me,   conceit me think of me, judge me
      Either a coward or a flatterer.   
      That I did love thee, Caesar, O, 'tis true:   
3.1.195      If then thy spirit look upon us now,   
      Shall it not grieve thee dearer than thy death,   dearer more keenly
      To see thy Anthony making his peace,   
      Shaking the bloody fingers of thy foes,   
      Most noble! in the presence of thy corse?   corse corpse
3.1.200      Had I as many eyes as thou hast wounds,   
      Weeping as fast as they stream forth thy blood,   
      It would become me better than to close   close be reconciled
      In terms of friendship with thine enemies.   
      Pardon me, Julius! Here wast thou bay'd, brave hart;   bay'd brought to bay (like a deer surrounded by
3.1.205      Here didst thou fall; and here thy hunters stand,   dogs) | hart deer, with a play on "heart"
      Sign'd in thy spoil, and crimson'd in thy lethe.   Sign'd in thy spoil i.e., stained with blood shed
      O world, thou wast the forest to this hart;   when you were butchered | lethe river of death >>>
      And this, indeed, O world, the heart of thee.   
      How like a deer, strucken by many princes,   
3.1.210      Dost thou here lie!   
      Mark Antony—   
                       Pardon me, Caius Cassius:   
      The enemies of Caesar shall say this;   The enemies i.e., even the enemies
      Then, in a friend, it is cold modesty.   this i.e., what he has just said about Caesar
    cold modesty unemotional moderation, simple
      CASSIUS   truth
      I blame you not for praising Caesar so;   
3.1.215      But what compact mean you to have with us?   compact agreement, contract
      Will you be prick'd in number of our friends;   prick'd in number marked down as one of (We
      Or shall we on, and not depend on you?   make check marks; they "pricked" the paper.)
    shall we on shall we carry on (with our business)?
      Therefore I took your hands, but was, indeed,   Therefore i.e., because I wanted to be a friend to
      Sway'd from the point, by looking down on Caesar.   all of you | Sway'd from the point diverted from
3.1.220      Friends am I with you all and love you all,   my intention
      Upon this hope, that you shall give me reasons   Upon this hope i.e., and so I hope
      Why and wherein Caesar was dangerous.   wherein in what particulars
      Or else were this a savage spectacle:   Or else were this otherwise this would be
      Our reasons are so full of good regard   good regard sound consideration
3.1.225      That were you, Antony, the son of Caesar,   
      You should be satisfied.   
                                   That's all I seek:   
      And am moreover suitor that I may   suitor one who requests a favor
      Produce his body to the market-place;   Produce bring forth | the market-place the Forum
      And in the pulpit, as becomes a friend,   pulpit rostrum >>>
3.1.230      Speak in the order of his funeral.   order ceremony
      You shall, Mark Antony.   
                             Brutus, a word with you.   
      [Aside to BRUTUS.]   
      You know not what you do: do not consent   
      That Antony speak in his funeral:   
      Know you how much the people may be moved   
3.1.235      By that which he will utter?   
                                       By your pardon—   
      I will myself into the pulpit first,   
      And show the reason of our Caesar's death:   
      What Antony shall speak, I will protest   protest proclaim, announce
      He speaks by leave and by permission,   
3.1.240      And that we are contented Caesar shall   
      Have all true rites and lawful ceremonies.   true proper, rightful
      It shall advantage more than do us wrong.   advantage benefit (us)
      I know not what may fall; I like it not.   fall happen
      Mark Antony, here, take you Caesar's body.   
3.1.245      You shall not in your funeral speech blame us,   
      But speak all good you can devise of Caesar,   
      And say you do't by our permission;   
      Else shall you not have any hand at all   
      About his funeral: and you shall speak   About in
3.1.250      In the same pulpit whereto I am going,   
      After my speech is ended.   
                                           Be it so.   
      I do desire no more.   
      Prepare the body then, and follow us.   
      Exeunt. Manet ANTONY.   Manet ANTONY (He remains on stage after the
    others leave.)
      O, pardon me, thou bleeding piece of earth,   
3.1.255      That I am meek and gentle with these butchers!   
      Thou art the ruins of the noblest man   
      That ever lived in the tide of times.   the tide of times the course of history
      Woe to the hand that shed this costly blood!   costly precious
      Over thy wounds now do I prophesy—   
3.1.260      Which, like dumb mouths, do ope their ruby lips,   dumb incapable of speech
      To beg the voice and utterance of my tongue—   voice and utterance of my tongue i.e., things said
      A curse shall light upon the limbs of men;   both passionately and eloquently
      Domestic fury and fierce civil strife   
      Shall cumber all the parts of Italy;   cumber overwhelm, burden
3.1.265      Blood and destruction shall be so in use   so in use so common
      And dreadful objects so familiar   objects sights
      That mothers shall but smile when they behold   but only
      Their infants quarter'd with the hands of war;   quarter'd cut to pieces
      All pity choked with custom of fell deeds:   All . . . deeds i.e., cruel deeds will be so customary
3.1.270      And Caesar's spirit, ranging for revenge,   that all pity will be choked off | ranging roaming
      With Ate by his side come hot from hell,   Ate goddess of discord and random cruelty
      Shall in these confines with a monarch's voice   these confines these regions, i.e., Italy
      Cry "Havoc!" and let slip the dogs of war;   "Havoc!" (A war-cry, signaling that no quarter will
      That this foul deed shall smell above the earth   be given.) | let slip unleash | That so that
3.1.275      With carrion men, groaning for burial.   this foul deed Caesar's murder
      Enter Octavius' Servant.   
      You serve Octavius Caesar, do you not?   
      I do, Mark Antony.   
      Caesar did write for him to come to Rome.   
      He did receive his letters, and is coming;   
3.1.280      And bid me say to you by word of mouth—   
      Seeing the body   
      O Caesar!—   
      Thy heart is big, get thee apart and weep.   big swollen with grief
      Passion, I see, is catching; for mine eyes,   Passion sorrow, grief
      Seeing those beads of sorrow stand in thine,   beads of sorrow i.e., tears
3.1.285      Began to water. Is thy master coming?   
      He lies to-night within seven leagues of Rome.   lies lodges | seven leagues (About twenty miles.)
      Post back with speed, and tell him what hath chanced:   Post ride on horseback | chanced happened
      Here is a mourning Rome, a dangerous Rome,   
      No Rome of safety for Octavius yet;   
3.1.290      Hie hence, and tell him so. Yet, stay awhile;   Hie hence hurry away
      Thou shalt not back till I have borne this corse   back return (to Octavius) | borne carried
      Into the market-place: there shall I try   corse corpse | try test
      In my oration, how the people take   
      The cruel issue of these bloody men;   issue deed
3.1.295      According to the which, thou shalt discourse   According to the which taking into consideration
      To young Octavius of the state of things.   how the Romans react to Antony's speech
      Lend me your hand.   young Octavius (He was 18.)
      Exeunt with [CAESAR's body].