Philip Weller caricature
Philip and Weller hugging

Welcome to my web site, now under development for more than twenty years.   
-- Philip Weller, November 13, 1941 - February 1, 2021
Dr. Weller, an Eastern Washington University professor of English and Shakespearean scholar for more than 50 years.

Julius Caesar :   Act 3, Scene 2

      Enter BRUTUS and CASSIUS with the Plebeians.   
      We will be satisfied; let us be satisfied.   be satisfied get a satisfactory explanation
      Then follow me, and give me audience, friends.   audience a hearing
      Cassius, go you into the other street,   
      And part the numbers.   part the numbers divide the crowd
3.2.5      Those that will hear me speak, let 'em stay here;   
      Those that will follow Cassius, go with him;   
      And public reasons shall be rendered   
      Of Caesar's death.   
      First Plebeian   
                             I will hear Brutus speak.   
      Second Plebeian   
      I will hear Cassius; and compare their reasons,   
3.2.10      When severally we hear them rendered.   severally separately
      [Exit CASSIUS with some of the Plebeians.   
     BRUTUS] goes into the pulpit.  
      Third Plebeian   
      The noble Brutus is ascended: silence!   
      Be patient till the last.   Be . . . last i.e., hear me out
      Romans, countrymen, and lovers! hear me for my cause,   lovers dear friends | hear . . . cause i.e., pay
      and be silent, that you may hear. Believe me for mine   attention, because this is important >>>
3.2.15      honour, and have respect to mine honour, that you   Believe . . . honour i.e., do me the honor of
      may believe. Censure me in your wisdom, and awake   believing me | have . . . believe i.e., upon my
      your senses, that you may the better judge. If there   honor, you may believe me | Censure judge
      be any in this assembly, any dear friend of Caesar's, to   senses intellect, understanding
      him I say, that Brutus' love to Caesar was no less than   
3.2.20      his. If then that friend demand why Brutus rose   
      against Caesar, this is my answer: Not that I loved   
      Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more. Had you   
      rather Caesar were living and die all slaves, than that   
      Caesar were dead, to live all free men? As Caesar loved   
3.2.25      me, I weep for him; as he was fortunate, I rejoice   
      at it; as he was valiant, I honour him; but, as he was   
      ambitious, I slew him. There is tears for his love; joy   
      for his fortune; honour for his valour; and death for his   
      ambition. Who is here so base that would be a bond-   
3.2.30      man? If any, speak; for him have I offended. Who   bondman slave | offended wronged
      is here so rude that would not be a Roman? If any,   rude barbarous
      speak, for him have I offended. Who is here so vile   
      that will not love his country? If any, speak, for him   
      have I offended. I pause for a reply.   
3.2.35      None, Brutus, none.   
      Then none have I offended. I have done no more to   I . . . Brutus i.e., what I have done to Caesar
      Caesar than you shall do to Brutus. The question of   you will be justified in doing to me (if I do
      his death is enrolled in the Capitol; his glory not   the wrongs Caesar has done)
      extenuated, wherein he was worthy, nor his offences   question . . . enrolled the justification for
3.2.40      enforced, for which he suffered death.   his death is on record
    extenuated minimized
      Enter MARK ANTONY [and others] with CAESAR's body.   enforced overemphasized
      Here comes his body, mourned by Mark Antony, who,   
      though he had no hand in his death, shall receive   
      the benefit of his dying, a place in the   
      commonwealth; as which of you shall not? With this   
3.2.45      I depart, that, as I slew my best lover for the   best lover dearest friend
      good of Rome, I have the same dagger for myself,   
      when it shall please my country to need my death.   
      Live, Brutus! live, live!   
      First Plebeian   
      Bring him with triumph home unto his house.   
      Second Plebeian   Second Plebeian (There was a different
3.2.50      Give him a statue with his ancestors.   "Second Plebeian" who left to hear Cassius
      Third Plebeian   
      Let him be Caesar.   
      Fourth Plebeian   
                             Caesar's better parts   parts qualities
      Shall be crown'd in Brutus.   
      First Plebeian   
                                     We'll bring him to his house   
      With shouts and clamours.   
                                    My countrymen—   
      Second Plebeian   
      Peace, silence! Brutus speaks.   
      First Plebeian   
                                                 Peace, ho!   
3.2.55      Good countrymen, let me depart alone,   
      And, for my sake, stay here with Antony:   
      Do grace to Caesar's corpse, and grace his speech   Do grace pay respect
      Tending to Caesar's glories; which Mark Antony,   grace his speech i.e., listen courteously to
      By our permission, is allow'd to make.   Antony's speech | Tending to concerning
3.2.60      I do entreat you, not a man depart,   
      Save I alone, till Antony have spoke.   
      Exit [Brutus].   
      First Plebeian   
      Stay, ho! and let us hear Mark Antony.   
      Third Plebeian   
      Let him go up into the public chair;   
      We'll hear him. Noble Antony, go up.   
3.2.65      For Brutus' sake, I am beholding to you.   beholding to indebted to
      [Goes into the pulpit.]   
      Fourth Plebeian   
      What does he say of Brutus?   
      Third Plebeian   
                                         He says, for Brutus' sake,   
      He finds himself beholding to us all.   
      Fourth Plebeian   
      'Twere best he speak no harm of Brutus here.   
      First Plebeian   
      This Caesar was a tyrant.   
      Third Plebeian   
                                      Nay, that's certain:   
3.2.70      We are blest that Rome is rid of him.   
      Second Plebeian   
      Peace! let us hear what Antony can say.   
      You gentle Romans—   
                                Peace, ho! let us hear him.   
      Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears;   lend me your ears i.e., grant me a moment
      I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him.   of your attention
3.2.75      The evil that men do lives after them;   
      The good is oft interred with their bones;   oft interred often buried
      So let it be with Caesar. The noble Brutus   
      Hath told you Caesar was ambitious:   
      If it were so, it was a grievous fault,   
3.2.80      And grievously hath Caesar answer'd it.   answer'd it paid for it
      Here, under leave of Brutus and the rest—   under leave by permission
      For Brutus is an honourable man;   
      So are they all, all honourable men—   
      Come I to speak in Caesar's funeral.   
3.2.85      He was my friend, faithful and just to me;   
      But Brutus says he was ambitious;   
      And Brutus is an honourable man.   
      He hath brought many captives home to Rome   
      Whose ransoms did the general coffers fill;   general coffers public treasury
3.2.90      Did this in Caesar seem ambitious?   
      When that the poor have cried, Caesar hath wept:   
      Ambition should be made of sterner stuff:   
      Yet Brutus says he was ambitious;   
      And Brutus is an honourable man.   
3.2.95      You all did see that on the Lupercal   
      I thrice presented him a kingly crown,   I . . . crown (See Casca's account of this,
      Which he did thrice refuse. Was this ambition?   beginning at 1.2.221 .)
      Yet Brutus says he was ambitious;   
      And, sure, he is an honourable man.   
3.2.100      I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke,   
      But here I am to speak what I do know.   
      You all did love him once, not without cause:   
      What cause withholds you then, to mourn for him?   
      O judgment! thou art fled to brutish beasts,   
3.2.105      And men have lost their reason. Bear with me;   
      My heart is in the coffin there with Caesar,   
      And I must pause till it come back to me.   
      First Plebeian   
      Methinks there is much reason in his sayings.   
      Second Plebeian   
      If thou consider rightly of the matter,   
3.2.110      Caesar has had great wrong.   
      Third Plebeian   
                                        Has he, masters?   masters good sirs
      I fear there will a worse come in his place.   will a worse come in his place i.e., he will
    be succeeded by someone worse
      Fourth Plebeian   
      Mark'd ye his words? He would not take the crown;   
      Therefore 'tis certain he was not ambitious.   
      First Plebeian   
      If it be found so, some will dear abide it.   dear abide it pay dearly for it
      Second Plebeian   
3.2.115      Poor soul! his eyes are red as fire with weeping.   
      Third Plebeian   
      There's not a nobler man in Rome than Antony.   
      Fourth Plebeian   
      Now mark him, he begins again to speak.   
      But yesterday the word of Caesar might   
      Have stood against the world; now lies he there,   
3.2.120      And none so poor to do him reverence.   none . . . reverence there is no one so lowly
      O masters, if I were disposed to stir   that he owes reverence to him
      Your hearts and minds to mutiny and rage,   mutiny riot, rebellion
      I should do Brutus wrong, and Cassius wrong,   
      Who, you all know, are honourable men:   
3.2.125      I will not do them wrong; I rather choose   
      To wrong the dead, to wrong myself and you,   
      Than I will wrong such honourable men.   
      But here's a parchment with the seal of Caesar;   
      I found it in his closet, 'tis his will:   closet study, private room
3.2.130      Let but the commons hear this testament—   commons common people
      Which, pardon me, I do not mean to read—   
      And they would go and kiss dead Caesar's wounds   
      And dip their napkins in his sacred blood,   napkins handkerchiefs
      Yea, beg a hair of him for memory,   
3.2.135      And, dying, mention it within their wills,   
      Bequeathing it as a rich legacy   
      Unto their issue.   issue children
      Fourth Plebeian   
      We'll hear the will: read it, Mark Antony.   
      The will, the will! we will hear Caesar's will.   
3.2.140      Have patience, gentle friends, I must not read it.   
      It is not meet you know how Caesar loved you.   meet fitting
      You are not wood, you are not stones, but men;   
      And, being men, hearing the will of Caesar,   
      It will inflame you, it will make you mad:   
3.2.145      'Tis good you know not that you are his heirs;   
      For, if you should, O, what would come of it!   
      Fourth Plebeian   
      Read the will; we'll hear it, Antony;   
      You shall read us the will, Caesar's will.   
      Will you be patient? will you stay awhile?   
3.2.150      I have o'ershot myself to tell you of it.   o'ershot myself said more than I should
      I fear I wrong the honourable men   have
      Whose daggers have stabb'd Caesar; I do fear it.   
      Fourth Plebeian   
      They were traitors: honourable men!   
      The will! the testament!   
      Second Plebeian   
3.2.155      They were villains, murderers: the will!   
      read the will.   
      You will compel me, then, to read the will?   
      Then make a ring about the corpse of Caesar,   
      And let me show you him that made the will.   
3.2.160      Shall I descend? and will you give me leave?   leave permission
      Come down.   
      Second Plebeian   
      Third Plebeian   
      You shall have leave.   
      [ANTONY comes down from the pulpit.]   
      Fourth Plebeian   
      A ring; stand round.   
      First Plebeian   
3.2.165      Stand from the hearse, stand from the body.   from away from | hearse bier
      Second Plebeian   
      Room for Antony, most noble Antony.   
      Nay, press not so upon me; stand farre off.   farre farther
      Stand back; room; bear back.   room make room | bear move
      If you have tears, prepare to shed them now.   
3.2.170      You all do know this mantle. I remember   mantle cloak, toga
      The first time ever Caesar put it on;   
      'Twas on a summer's evening, in his tent,   
      That day he overcame the Nervii:   the Nervii a Belgian tribe (Caesar's victory
      Look, in this place ran Cassius' dagger through:   over them in 57 B.C. was celebrated in
3.2.175      See what a rent the envious Casca made;   Rome.) | rent gash | envious spiteful
      Through this the well-beloved Brutus stabb'd;   
      And as he pluck'd his cursed steel away,   pluck'd jerked | steel i.e., dagger
      Mark how the blood of Caesar follow'd it,   
      As rushing out of doors, to be resolved   As as if | to be resolved to find out for sure
3.2.180      If Brutus so unkindly knock'd, or no;   unkindly cruelly and unnaturally
      For Brutus, as you know, was Caesar's angel:   angel guardian angel; best beloved
      Judge, O you gods, how dearly Caesar loved him!   dearly dearly, also, at what great expense
      This was the most unkindest cut of all;   most unkindest cut (In Shakespeare's time
      For when the noble Caesar saw him stab,   there wasn't no rule about no double
3.2.185      Ingratitude, more strong than traitors' arms,   negatives or nothing like that.)
      Quite vanquish'd him: then burst his mighty heart;   
      And, in his mantle muffling up his face,   in . . . face i.e., covering his face with his
      Even at the base of Pompey's statue,   cloak
      Which all the while ran blood, great Caesar fell.   
3.2.190      O, what a fall was there, my countrymen!   
      Then I, and you, and all of us fell down,   
      Whilst bloody treason flourish'd over us.   flourish'd celebrated its triumph; waved its
      O, now you weep; and, I perceive, you feel   weapon
      The dint of pity: these are gracious drops.   dint painful sense
3.2.195      Kind souls, what, weep you when you but behold   gracious drops i.e., tears of honor and grace
      Our Caesar's vesture wounded? Look you here,   vesture garment
      [Lifting Caesar's mantle.]   
      Here is himself, marr'd, as you see, with traitors.   marr'd marred, disfigured | with by
      First Plebeian   
      O piteous spectacle!   
      Second Plebeian   
      O noble Caesar!   
      Third Plebeian   
3.2.200      O woeful day!   
      Fourth Plebeian   
      O traitors, villains!   
      First Plebeian   
      O most bloody sight!   
      Second Plebeian   
      We will be revenged.   
      Revenge! About! Seek! Burn! Fire! Kill! Slay!   About! to work!; let's do it!
3.2.205      Let not a traitor live!   
      Stay, countrymen.   Stay i.e., hang on, wait a minute
      First Plebeian   
      Peace there! hear the noble Antony.   Peace there! Shut up, you people!
      Second Plebeian   
      We'll hear him, we'll follow him, we'll die with   
3.2.210      Good friends, sweet friends, let me not stir you up   
      To such a sudden flood of mutiny.   mutiny rebellion, riot
      They that have done this deed are honourable:   
      What private griefs they have, alas, I know not,   private griefs personal grievances
      That made them do it: they are wise and honourable,   
3.2.215      And will, no doubt, with reasons answer you.   
      I come not, friends, to steal away your hearts:   
      I am no orator, as Brutus is;   
      But, as you know me all, a plain blunt man,   
      That love my friend; and that they know full well   
3.2.220      That gave me public leave to speak of him:   leave permission
      For I have neither wit, nor words, nor worth,   wit . . . utterance intelligence, vocabulary,
      Action, nor utterance, nor the power of speech,   reputation, eloquent gestures, polished
      To stir men's blood; I only speak right on;   delivery | right on without premeditation,
      I tell you that which you yourselves do know;   i.e., what I really think
3.2.225      Show you sweet Caesar's wounds, poor poor dumb mouths,   dumb silent
      And bid them speak for me: but were I Brutus,   
      And Brutus Antony, there were an Antony   
      Would ruffle up your spirits and put a tongue   ruffle up your spirits raise your hackles,
      In every wound of Caesar that should move   stir to anger | move provoke
3.2.230      The stones of Rome to rise and mutiny.   mutiny run amok
      We'll mutiny.   
      First Plebeian   
                          We'll burn the house of Brutus.   
      Third Plebeian   
      Away, then! come, seek the conspirators.   
      Yet hear me, countrymen; yet hear me speak.   
      Peace, ho! Hear Antony. Most noble Antony!   
3.2.235      Why, friends, you go to do you know not what:   
      Wherein hath Caesar thus deserved your loves?   
      Alas, you know not: I must tell you then:   
      You have forgot the will I told you of.   
      Most true. The will! Let's stay and hear the will.   
3.2.240      Here is the will, and under Caesar's seal.   under Caesar's seal i.e., authenticated by
      To every Roman citizen he gives,   Caesar >>>
      To every several man, seventy-five drachmas.   several individual | drachmas silver coins >>>
      Second Plebeian   
      Most noble Caesar! We'll revenge his death.   
      Third Plebeian   
      O royal Caesar!   
3.2.245      Hear me with patience.   
      Peace, ho!   
      Moreover, he hath left you all his walks,   
      His private arbours and new-planted orchards,   
      On this side Tiber; he hath left them you,   
3.2.250      And to your heirs for ever—common pleasures,   
      To walk abroad, and recreate yourselves.   
      Here was a Caesar! when comes such another?   
      First Plebeian   
      Never, never. Come, away, away!   
      We'll burn his body in the holy place,   
3.2.255      And with the brands fire the traitors' houses.   
      Take up the body.   
      Second Plebeian   
      Go fetch fire.   
      Third Plebeian   
      Pluck down benches.   
      Fourth Plebeian   
      Pluck down forms, windows, any thing.   
      Exeunt Plebeians [with the body].   
3.2.260      Now let it work. Mischief, thou art afoot,   
      Take thou what course thou wilt!   
      Enter a Servant.   
                                           How now, fellow!   
      Sir, Octavius is already come to Rome.   
      Where is he?   
      He and Lepidus are at Caesar's house.   
3.2.265      And thither will I straight to visit him:   
      He comes upon a wish. Fortune is merry,   
      And in this mood will give us any thing.   
      I heard him say, Brutus and Cassius   
      Are rid like madmen through the gates of Rome.   
3.2.270      Belike they had some notice of the people,   
      How I had moved them. Bring me to Octavius.