Philip Weller caricature
Philip and Weller hugging

Welcome to my web site, now under development for more than twenty years.   
-- Philip Weller, November 13, 1941 - February 1, 2021
Dr. Weller, an Eastern Washington University professor of English and Shakespearean scholar for more than 50 years.

Julius Caesar :   Act 4, Scene 3

      [Enter BRUTUS and CASSIUS.]   Enter (Actually, they just remain where they
    were, which now represents the interior of
      CASSIUS   Brutus' tent.)
      That you have wrong'd me doth appear in this:   
      You have condemn'd and noted Lucius Pella   noted publicly disgraced
      For taking bribes here of the Sardians;   Lucius Pella a Roman magistrate stationed
      Wherein my letters, praying on his side,   in Sardis | of from | letters i.e., letter, words
4.3.5      Because I knew the man, were slighted off.   praying . . . side i.e., requesting (leniency) for
    him | slighted off contemptuously disregarded
      You wronged yourself to write in such a case.   
      In such a time as this it is not meet   meet fitting, appropriate
      That every nice offence should bear his comment.   nice trivial | bear his comment i.e., be closely
      Let me tell you, Cassius, you yourself   
4.3.10      Are much condemn'd to have an itching palm;   to have for having
      To sell and mart your offices for gold   mart your offices auction off your influence
      To undeservers.   
                           I an itching palm!   
      You know that you are Brutus that speak this,   You . . . last i.e., you are relying on your
      Or, by the gods, this speech were else your last.   reputation as the honorable Brutus; otherwise,
    I'd kill you
4.3.15      The name of Cassius honours this corruption,   The name . . . head i.e., your reputation as the
      And chastisement doth therefore hide his head.   honorable Cassius keeps you from being
    punished for this corruption
      Chastisement!   Chastisement! (Cassius is outraged at the idea
    that Brutus could think that he has the right to
      BRUTUS   punish him.)
      Remember March, the ides of March remember:   
      Did not great Julius bleed for justice' sake?   
4.3.20      What villain touch'd his body, that did stab,   villain (They would have been villains if they
      And not for justice? What, shall one of us   had killed him for any other cause than justice.)
      That struck the foremost man of all this world   
      But for supporting robbers, shall we now   But only | robbers (Julius Caesar was reputed to
      Contaminate our fingers with base bribes,   countenance corrupt tax-collectors and the like.)
4.3.25      And sell the mighty space of our large honours   mighty space of our large honours our noble
      For so much trash as may be grasped thus?   reputations | trash i.e., money
      I had rather be a dog, and bay the moon,   bay the moon bay at the moon
      Than such a Roman.   
                              Brutus, bait not me;   bait harass, badger
      I'll not endure it: you forget yourself,   
4.3.30      To hedge me in; I am a soldier, I,   hedge me in restrict my authority
      Older in practise, abler than yourself   Older in practise more experienced
      To make conditions.   make conditions decide how to manage affairs
    (such as what to do about bribery accusations)
                                Go to; you are not, Cassius.   Go to (A common phrase meaning "no way,"
    "you've gotta be kidding," "b.s., " etc.)
      I am.   
      I say you are not.   
4.3.35      Urge me no more, I shall forget myself;   Urge push, provoke | forget myself lose control
      Have mind upon your health, tempt me no further.   of myself | tempt provoke
      Away, slight man!   slight puny, insignificant
      Is't possible?   Is't possible? i.e., I can't believe you're saying
                          Hear me, for I will speak.   
      Must I give way and room to your rash choler?   give . . . to yield to | choler anger
4.3.40      Shall I be frighted when a madman stares?   stares glares, looks wildly
      O ye gods, ye gods! must I endure all this?   
      All this! ay, more: fret till your proud heart break;   fret (As in "fret and fume.")
      Go show your slaves how choleric you are,   choleric bad-tempered
      And make your bondmen tremble. Must I budge?   bondmen slaves | budge flinch
4.3.45      Must I observe you? must I stand and crouch   observe defer to | stand put up with
      Under your testy humour? By the gods   crouch cringe | humour temperament
      You shall digest the venom of your spleen,   digest swallow (not spew forth)
      Though it do split you; for, from this day forth,   spleen ill temper
      I'll use you for my mirth, yea, for my laughter,   
4.3.50      When you are waspish.   waspish hotheaded
                                  Is it come to this?   
      You say you are a better soldier:   
      Let it appear so; make your vaunting true,   vaunting boasting
      And it shall please me well: for mine own part,   
      I shall be glad to learn of noble men.   learn of learn from (Brutus is being sarcastic.
    He means something like, "When you show that
      CASSIUS   you really are a better soldier and noble, I'll
4.3.55      You wrong me every way; you wrong me, Brutus;   listen to you.")
      I said, an elder soldier, not a better:   
      Did I say "better"?   
                               If you did, I care not.   
      When Caesar lived, he durst not thus have mov'd me.   durst not dared not | mov'd angered
      Peace, peace! you durst not so have tempted him.   Peace be quiet, shut up | tempted provoked
4.3.60      I durst not!   
      What, durst not tempt him!   
                                       For your life you durst not!   
      Do not presume too much upon my love;   Do . . . love i.e., don't count too much on my
      I may do that I shall be sorry for.   affection for you | that . . . for something (to
    hurt you) that I will regret
4.3.65      You have done that you should be sorry for.   that . . . for i.e., countenancing the taking of
      There is no terror, Cassius, in your threats,   bribes
      For I am arm'd so strong in honesty   arm'd . . . honesty i.e., so sure that I am right
      That they pass by me as the idle wind,   idle insignificant
      Which I respect not. I did send to you   respect not pay no attention to
4.3.70      For certain sums of gold, which you denied me:   
      For I can raise no money by vile means:   I . . . no i.e., it is against my nature
      By heaven, I had rather coin my heart,   coin make coins out of
      And drop my blood for drachmas, than to wring   drop spill | drachmas small coins
      From the hard hands of peasants their vile trash   hard i.e., callused | vile trash i.e., the little they
4.3.75      By any indirection. I did send   have | indirection dishonest or devious means
      To you for gold to pay my legions,   
      Which you denied me: was that done like Cassius?   
      Should I have answer'd Caius Cassius so?   
      When Marcus Brutus grows so covetous,   
4.3.80      To lock such rascal counters from his friends,   rascal counters paltry sums (Counters were
      Be ready, gods, with all your thunderbolts;   tokens used by shopkeepers to keep track of
      Dash him to pieces!   fractions.)
                               I denied you not.   
      You did.   
      I did not: he was but a fool that brought   he . . . back (Cassius blames the messenger.)
4.3.85      My answer back. Brutus hath rived my heart:   rived cleft
      A friend should bear his friend's infirmities,   bear i.e., be forgiving of | infirmities foibles,
      But Brutus makes mine greater than they are.   small faults
      I do not, till you practise them on me.   practise them on me make them affect me
      You love me not.   
                             I do not like your faults.   
4.3.90      A friendly eye could never see such faults.   
      A flatterer's would not, though they do appear   
      As huge as high Olympus.   Olympus Mount Olympus
      Come, Antony, and young Octavius, come,   
      Revenge yourselves alone on Cassius,   alone on Cassius on Cassius alone
4.3.95      For Cassius is a-weary of the world;   
      Hated by one he loves; braved by his brother;   braved defied
      Check'd like a bondman; all his faults observed,   Check'd rebuked, scolded | observed noted
      Set in a note-book, learn'd, and conn'd by rote,   learn'd . . . rote studied and memorized
      To cast into my teeth. O, I could weep   cast throw
4.3.100      My spirit from mine eyes! There is my dagger,   There is my dagger (He offers his dagger to
      And here my naked breast; within, a heart   Brutus.)
      Dearer than Pluto's mine, richer than gold:   Dearer richer | Pluto god of the underworld >>>
      If that thou be'st a Roman, take it forth;   take it forth i.e., cut out my heart
      I, that denied thee gold, will give my heart:   I . . . gold I, who (according to your accusation)
4.3.105      Strike, as thou didst at Caesar; for, I know,   denied you money
      When thou didst hate him worst, thou lovedst him better   
      Than ever thou lovedst Cassius.   
                                             Sheathe your dagger:   
      Be angry when you will, it shall have scope;   it . . .scope your anger will have free rein
      Do what you will, dishonour shall be humour.   dishonour shall be humour i.e., I'll regard your
4.3.110      O Cassius, you are yoked with a lamb   insults as the result of your temperament
      That carries anger as the flint bears fire;   yoked partnered | bears holds
      Who, much enforced, shows a hasty spark,   much enforced struck hard | hasty momentary
      And straight is cold again.   straight immediately
                                        Hath Cassius lived   
      To be but mirth and laughter to his Brutus,   
4.3.115      When grief, and blood ill-temper'd, vexeth him?   blood ill-temper'd diseased blood >>>
      When I spoke that, I was ill-temper'd too.   
      Do you confess so much? Give me your hand.   
      And my heart too.   
                             O Brutus!   
                                             What's the matter?   
      Have not you love enough to bear with me,   
4.3.120      When that rash humour which my mother gave me   rash humour irritable temper
      Makes me forgetful?   forgetful i.e., forgetful of my love and respect
    for you
                               Yes, Cassius; and, from henceforth,   
      When you are over-earnest with your Brutus,   
      He'll think your mother chides, and leave you so.   leave you so leave it at that
      Enter a Poet [to LUCILIUS and TITINIUS,   
      as they stand on guard].  
      Let me go in to see the generals;   
4.3.125      There is some grudge between 'em, 'tis not meet   meet fitting
      They be alone.   
      You shall not come to them.   
      Nothing but death shall stay me.   stay stop
      How now! what's the matter?   
4.3.130      For shame, you generals! what do you mean?   what do you mean? what do you think you're
      Love, and be friends, as two such men should be;   doing?
      For I have seen more years, I'm sure, than ye.   
      Ha, ha! how vilely doth this cynic rhyme!   cynic rude, loud fellow
      Get you hence, sirrah; saucy fellow, hence!   sirrah (A derogatory term for an inferior.)
4.3.135      Bear with him, Brutus; 'tis his fashion.   'tis his fashion i.e., it's just how he is
      I'll know his humour, when he knows his time:   I'll . . . time I'll be understanding about his
      What should the wars do with these jigging fools?   oddities when he understands the right time for
      Companion, hence!   them | jigging rhyming | Companion ("Buddy,"
    as in "Get lost, buddy.")
                              Away, away, be gone.   
      Exit Poet.   
      Lucilius and Titinius, bid the commanders   
4.3.140      Prepare to lodge their companies to-night.   
      And come yourselves, and bring Messala with you   
      Immediately to us.   
      Exeunt LUCILIUS and TITINIUS.   
      BRUTUS [To Lucius within.]   
                               Lucius, a bowl of wine!   
      I did not think you could have been so angry.   
      O Cassius, I am sick of many griefs.   
4.3.145      Of your philosophy you make no use,   your philosophy Stoicism
      If you give place to accidental evils.   give place to yield to, are affected by
    accidental caused by chance (Stoics are
      BRUTUS   supposed to be impervious to such evils.)
      No man bears sorrow better. Portia is dead.   
      Ha! Portia!   
      She is dead.   
4.3.150      How 'scaped I killing when I cross'd you so?   'scaped I killing escaped being killed
      O insupportable and touching loss!   
      Upon what sickness?   
                               Impatient of my absence,   Impatient of unable to bear
      And grief that young Octavius with Mark Antony   
      Have made themselves so strong—for with her death   for . . . came i.e., with news of her death came
4.3.155      That tidings came. With this she fell distract,   news that Octavius and Antony had gained
      And, her attendants absent, swallow'd fire.   strength | fire live embers >>>
      And died so?   
                         Even so.   
                                        O ye immortal gods!   
      Enter Boy [LUCIUS] with wine and tapers.   tapers candles
      Speak no more of her. Give me a bowl of wine.   
      In this I bury all unkindness, Cassius.   
4.3.160      My heart is thirsty for that noble pledge.   
      Fill, Lucius, till the wine o'erswell the cup;   o'erswell overflow
      I cannot drink too much of Brutus' love.   
      [Drinks. Exit LUCIUS.]   
      Enter TITINIUS and MESSALA.   
      Come in, Titinius! Welcome, good Messala.   
      Now sit we close about this taper here,   
4.3.165      And call in question our necessities.   call in question consider, discuss
    our necessities what we must do
      Portia, art thou gone?   
                                  No more, I pray you.   
      Messala, I have here received letters,   
      That young Octavius and Mark Antony   That saying that
      Come down upon us with a mighty power,   power army
4.3.170      Bending their expedition toward Philippi.   Bending their expedition directing their rapid
      Myself have letters of the selfsame tenor.   tenor general meaning
      With what addition?   
      That by proscription and bills of outlawry,   proscription a declaration that a person is not
      Octavius, Antony, and Lepidus,   protected by the law | bills written announce-
4.3.175      Have put to death an hundred senators.   ments, posted in public places
      Therein our letters do not well agree;   
      Mine speak of seventy senators that died   
      By their proscriptions, Cicero being one.   
      Cicero one?   
                       Cicero is dead,   
4.3.180      And by that order of proscription.   
      Had you your letters from your wife, my lord?   
      No, Messala.   
      Nor nothing in your letters writ of her?   
      Nothing, Messala.   Nothing (Is Brutus lying, or did Shakespeare
    revise the scene?) >>>
                              That, methinks, is strange.   
4.3.185      Why ask you? hear you aught of her in yours?   
      No, my lord.   
      Now, as you are a Roman, tell me true.   
      Then like a Roman bear the truth I tell:   
      For certain she is dead, and by strange manner.   
4.3.190      Why, farewell, Portia. We must die, Messala:   
      With meditating that she must die once,   once at some time
      I have the patience to endure it now.   patience fortitude
      Even so great men great losses should endure.   Even so in just such a way
      I have as much of this in art as you,   this i.e., Brutus' Stoicism | in art in theory
4.3.195      But yet my nature could not bear it so.   
      Well, to our work alive. What do you think   alive concerning the living, and immediate,
      Of marching to Philippi presently?   pressing | presently immediately
      I do not think it good.   
                                   Your reason?   
                                                       This it is:   
      'Tis better that the enemy seek us:   
4.3.200      So shall he waste his means, weary his soldiers,   
      Doing himself offence; whilst we, lying still,   offence harm
      Are full of rest, defense, and nimbleness.   
      Good reasons must, of force, give place to better.   of force by necessity
      The people 'twixt Philippi and this ground   
4.3.205      Do stand but in a forced affection;   
      For they have grudged us contribution:   grudged us contribution unwillingly con-
      The enemy, marching along by them,   tributed men and money | by among
      By them shall make a fuller number up,   make a fuller number up add to their forces (by
      Come on refresh'd, new-added, and encouraged;   recruiting among the locals) | new-added with
4.3.210      From which advantage shall we cut him off,   additional troops
      If at Philippi we do face him there,   
      These people at our back.   These people the locals who would otherwise
    provide recruits to the enemy
                                  Hear me, good brother.   
      Under your pardon. You must note beside,   Under your pardon i.e., excuse me, allow me to
      That we have tried the utmost of our friends,   finish | tried . . . friends gotten all that we can
4.3.215      Our legions are brimfull, our cause is ripe:   from our supporters
      The enemy increaseth every day;   
      We, at the height, are ready to decline.   
      There is a tide in the affairs of men,   
      Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune;   
4.3.220      Omitted, all the voyage of their life   Omitted missed
      Is bound in shallows and in miseries.   bound in confined to
      On such a full sea are we now afloat;   
      And we must take the current when it serves,   
      Or lose our ventures.   ventures investments (in trading enterprises
    at sea)
                                   Then, with your will, go on;   with your will as you wish
4.3.225      We'll along ourselves, and meet them at Philippi.   
      The deep of night is crept upon our talk,   
      And nature must obey necessity;   
      Which we will niggard with a little rest.   niggard stint, pay off with as little as possible >>>
      There is no more to say?   
                                    No more. Good night:   
4.3.230      Early to-morrow will we rise, and hence.   hence depart, get going
      Enter LUCIUS.   
                  My gown.   gown dressing gown
      [Exit LUCIUS.]   
                                Farewell, good Messala:   
      Good night, Titinius. Noble, noble Cassius,   
      Good night, and good repose.   
                                        O my dear brother!   
      This was an ill beginning of the night:   
4.3.235      Never come such division 'tween our souls!   Never . . . souls! i.e., Let us never again have
      Let it not, Brutus.   such a quarrel as we had tonight.
      Enter LUCIUS with the gown.   
                                Every thing is well.   
      Good night, my lord.   
                                 Good night, good brother.   
      Good night, Lord Brutus.   
                                     Farewell, every one.   
      Exeunt [all but BRUTUS and LUCIUS].   
      Give me the gown. Where is thy instrument?   instrument (It's likely it's a lute.) >>>
4.3.240      Here in the tent.   
                              What, thou speak'st drowsily?   
      Poor knave, I blame thee not; thou art o'er-watch'd.   knave boy, rascal (said affectionately)
      Call Claudio and some other of my men:   o'er-watch'd worn out from watching—staying
      I'll have them sleep on cushions in my tent.   up late on duty
      Varrus and Claudio!   
      Enter VARRUS and CLAUDIO.   
4.3.245      Calls my lord?   
      I pray you, sirs, lie in my tent and sleep;   
      It may be I shall raise you by and by   raise rouse, awake
      On business to my brother Cassius.   brother i.e., brother-in-arms
      So please you, we will stand and watch your pleasure.   watch your pleasure stay awake and await your
4.3.250      I will not have it so: lie down, good sirs;   
      It may be I shall otherwise bethink me.   otherwise bethink me change my mind
      [VARRUS and CLAUDIO lie down.]   
      Look, Lucius, here's the book I sought for so;   
      I put it in the pocket of my gown.   
      I was sure your lordship did not give it me.   
4.3.255      Bear with me, good boy, I am much forgetful.   
      Canst thou hold up thy heavy eyes awhile,   
      And touch thy instrument a strain or two?   touch play on | strain tune, or part of one
      Ay, my lord, an't please you.   an't if it
                                         It does, my boy:   
      I trouble thee too much, but thou art willing.   
4.3.260      It is my duty, sir.   
      I should not urge thy duty past thy might;   urge push | might strength
      I know young bloods look for a time of rest.   young bloods youthful natures
      I have slept, my lord, already.   
      It was well done; and thou shalt sleep again;   
4.3.265      I will not hold thee long: if I do live,   hold keep, detain
      I will be good to thee.   
      Music, and a song.   
      This is a sleepy tune. O murderous slumber,   murderous slumber (Lucius has fallen dead
      Lay'st thou thy leaden mace upon my boy,   asleep.) | leaden heavy | mace a sheriff's staff of
      That plays thee music? Gentle knave, good night;   office, used in arrests | thee i.e., "slumber" >>>
4.3.270      I will not do thee so much wrong to wake thee:   
      If thou dost nod, thou break'st thy instrument;   
      I'll take it from thee; and, good boy, good night.   
      Let me see, let me see; is not the leaf turn'd down   
      Where I left reading? Here it is, I think.   
      Enter the Ghost of CAESAR.   
4.3.275      How ill this taper burns! Ha! who comes here?   taper candle (Candles were supposed to dim in
      I think it is the weakness of mine eyes   the presence of a ghost.)
      That shapes this monstrous apparition.   
      It comes upon me. Art thou any thing?   upon toward
      Art thou some god, some angel, or some devil,   
4.3.280      That makest my blood cold and my hair to stare?   stare stand on end
      Speak to me what thou art.   
      Thy evil spirit, Brutus.   
                                     Why comest thou?   
      To tell thee thou shalt see me at Philippi.   
      Well; then I shall see thee again?   
4.3.285      Ay, at Philippi.   
      Why, I will see thee at Philippi, then.   
      [Exit Ghost.]   
      Now I have taken heart thou vanishest:   
      Ill spirit, I would hold more talk with thee.   
      Boy, Lucius! Varrus! Claudio! Sirs, awake!   
4.3.290      Claudio!   
      The strings, my lord, are false.   false out of tune
      He thinks he still is at his instrument.   
      Lucius, awake!   
      My lord?   
4.3.295      Didst thou dream, Lucius, that thou so criedst out?   
      My lord, I do not know that I did cry.   
      Yes, that thou didst: didst thou see any thing?   
      Nothing, my lord.   
      Sleep again, Lucius. Sirrah Claudio!   
      [To VARRUS.]   
4.3.300      Fellow thou, awake!   
      My lord?   
      My lord?   
      Why did you so cry out, sirs, in your sleep?   
      Both [VARRUS and CLAUDIO]   
      Did we, my lord?   
                             Ay: saw you any thing?   
4.3.305      No, my lord, I saw nothing.   
                                        Nor I, my lord.   
      Go and commend me to my brother Cassius;   commend me to give my respects to
      Bid him set on his powers betimes before,   Bid . . . before tell him to get his troops on the
      And we will follow.   march early and in the forefront
      Both [VARRUS and CLAUDIO]   
                                    It shall be done, my lord.