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Philip and Weller hugging

Welcome to my web site, now under development for more than twenty years.   
-- Philip Weller, November 13, 1941 - February 1, 2021
Dr. Weller, an Eastern Washington University professor of English and Shakespearean scholar for more than 50 years.

As You Like It: Act 5, Scene 4

           Enter DUKE SENIOR, AMIENS,

  1   Dost thou believe, Orlando, that the boy
  2   Can do all this that he hath promised?

  3   I sometimes do believe, and sometimes do not;
4. fear they hope, and know they fear: i.e., fear that they are only hoping for the best, and know that they fear the worst.
  4   As those that fear they hope, and know they fear.

           Enter ROSALIND, SILVIUS, and PHEBE.

5. whiles our compact is urg'd: while our agreement is put forward [for review and confirmation].
  5   Patience once more, whiles our compact is urg'd:
  6   You say, if I bring in your Rosalind,
  7   You will bestow her on Orlando here?

8. had I: even if I had. —In the real life of Shakespeare's time, a man who had kingdoms to give with his daughter would want to give them to a future son-in-law who was equally wealthy, but in this As You Like It world the fact that Orlando has nothing is fine with Rosalind's father.
  8   That would I, had I kingdoms to give with her.

  9   And you say, you will have her, when I bring her?

 10   That would I, were I of all kingdoms king.

 11   You say, you'll marry me, if I be willing?

 12   That will I, should I die the hour after.

 13   But if you do refuse to marry me,
 14   You'll give yourself to this most faithful shepherd?

 15   So is the bargain.

 16   You say, that you'll have Phebe, if she will?

 17   Though to have her and death were both one thing.

18. I have promised to make all this matter even: I have promised to clear the way, in order that all of this can happen.
 18   I have promised to make all this matter even.
 19   Keep you your word, O duke, to give your daughter;
 20   You yours, Orlando, to receive his daughter:
 21   Keep your word, Phebe, that you'll marry me,
 22   Or else refusing me, to wed this shepherd:
 23   Keep your word, Silvius, that you'll marry her.
 24   If she refuse me: and from hence I go,
25. make these doubts all even: i.e., make these seeming impossibilities come true.
 25   To make these doubts all even.

           Exeunt ROSALIND and CELIA.

26. do remember: am reminded (of).
27. lively: lifelike.  touches: aspects, details.  favour: appearance.
 26   I do remember in this shepherd boy
 27   Some lively touches of my daughter's favour.

 28   My lord, the first time that I ever saw him
 29   Methought he was a brother to your daughter:
 30   But, my good lord, this boy is forest-born,
 31   And hath been tutor'd in the rudiments
32. desperate: dangerous [because magical].
 32   Of many desperate studies by his uncle,
 33   Whom he reports to be a great magician,
34. Obscured: hidden.  the circle of this forest: —Perhaps this is an allusion to the circle within which a magician was supposedly safe during his dealing with spirits.
 34   Obscured in the circle of this forest.

           Enter Clown [TOUCHSTONE] and AUDREY.

35. toward: on the way.
 35   There is, sure, another flood toward, and these
 36   couples are coming to the ark. Here comes a
 37   pair of very strange beasts, which in all tongues
 38   are called fools.

 39   Salutation and greeting to you all!

 40   Good my lord, bid him welcome: this is the
41. motley-minded: scatter-brained.
 41   motley-minded gentleman that I have so often met
42. courtier: a companion or advisor to a king. — Now (CE 2017) this type of person, one who trades the illusion of friendship for political favors, would be called a lobbyist.  43‑44. put me to my purgation: challenge me to clear myself (of the charge of lying).  44. measure: a slow, stately dance.
 42   in the forest: he hath been a courtier, he swears.

 43   If any man doubt that, let him put me to my
 44   purgation. I have trod a measure; I have flattered
 45   a lady; I have been politic with my friend, smooth
46. undone three tailors: bankrupted three tailors. —The English upper classes have long considered paying tailors to be an optional act of generosity.
47. and like to have fought one: and almost had to fight one.
48. how was that ta'en up?: how did that turn out?
 46   with mine enemy; I have undone three tailors; I
 47   have had four quarrels, and like to have fought one.

 48   And how was that ta'en up?

 49   Faith, we met, and found the quarrel was upon
 50   the seventh cause.

51-52. like this fellow: you have to love this guy.
 51   How seventh cause? Good my lord, like this
 52   fellow.

 53   I like him very well.

54. God 'ild you, sir; I desire you of the like: i.e., thank you sir; I wish you the same.
56. copulatives: i.e., people desiring to couple.  to swear and forswear: to swear love to one and to forswear all others, as in the common marriage vow: "forsaking all others keep thee only unto her/him"  57. as marriage binds and blood breaks: i.e., as marriage binds people to their wedding vows and as passion makes them break those vows.  a poor virgin: i.e., Audrey.  59. humour: whim.  60. honesty: chastity.
 54   God 'ild you, sir; I desire you of the like. I
 55   press in here, sir, amongst the rest of the country
 56   copulatives, to swear and to forswear: according
 57   as marriage binds and blood breaks: a poor virgin,
 58   sir, an ill-favoured thing, sir, but mine own; a poor
 59   humour of mine, sir, to take that that no man else
 60   will: rich honesty dwells like a miser, sir, in a
 61   poor house; as your pearl in your foul oyster.

62. swift and sententious: quick-witted and pithy.
 62   By my faith, he is very swift and sententious.

63-64. According to the fool's bolt, sir, and such dulcet diseases: i.e., It's like the proverb says, "A fool's bolt [arrow] is soon shot," meaning that wittiness is the sweet disease of fools, so that a fool can't keep himself from making witty remarks. —The Duke has just praised Touchstone for being "swift and sententious," and this is Touchstone's answer.
 63   According to the fool's bolt, sir, and such dulcet
 64   diseases.

 65   But, for the seventh cause; how did you find
 66   the quarrel on the seventh cause?

67-68. bear your body more seeming, Audrey: —Audrey must be doing some impossibly awkward lolling about.
69. dislike: find fault with.
 67   Upon a lie seven times removed—bear your
 68   body more seeming, Audrey—as thus, sir. I
 69   did dislike the cut of a certain courtier's beard:
 70   he sent me word, if I said his beard was not cut
 71   well, he was in the mind it was: this is called the
 72   Retort Courteous. If I sent him word again 'it was
 73   not well cut,' he would send me word, he cut it
74. Modest: moderate.
 74   to please himself: this is called the Quip Modest.
75-76. disabled my judgment: i.e., said I didn't know what I was talking about.
 75   If again 'it was not well cut,' he disabled my
 76   judgment: this is called the Reply Churlish. If
 77   again 'it was not well cut,' he would answer, I
 78   spake not true: this is called the Reproof Valiant.
 79   If again 'it was not well cut,' he would say I lied:
80. Countercheck: counter-rebuff.
 80   this is called the Countercheck Quarrelsome:
81. Circumstantial: indirect.
 81   and so to the Lie Circumstantial and the Lie
 82   Direct.

 83   And how oft did you say his beard was not well
 84   cut?

 85   I durst go no further than the Lie Circumstantial,
 86   nor he durst not give me the Lie Direct; and so we
87. measur'd swords: i.e., only prepared for duelling. —One of the preliminaries of a duel was measuring of the duelists' swords, to make sure that one wasn't longer than the other.
 87   measured swords and parted.

88. nominate: name over.
 88   Can you nominate in order now the degrees of the
 89   lie?

90. by the book: according to established rules. —Touchstone is making fun of such books as Vincent Saviolo's Practice of the Rapier and Dagger (1594-5), the second part of which is entitled "Honor and Honorable Quarrels," with a section headed "Of the Manner and Diversity of Lies."
 90   O sir, we quarrel in print, by the book; as you have
 91   books for good manners: I will name you the degrees.
 92   The first, the Retort Courteous; the second, the
 93   Quip Modest; the third, the Reply Churlish; the
 94   fourth, the Reproof Valiant; the fifth, the
 95   Countercheck Quarrelsome; the sixth, the Lie with
 96   Circumstance; the seventh, the Lie Direct. All
 97   these you may avoid but the Lie Direct; and you may
 98   avoid that too, with an If. I knew when seven
99. take up: settle.
 99   justices could not take up a quarrel, but when the
100   parties were met themselves, one of them thought
101   but of an If, as, 'If you said so, then I said so;' and
102. swore brothers: i.e., swore eternal brotherhood.
102   they shook hands and swore brothers. Your If is the
103   only peacemaker; much virtue in If.

104   Is not this a rare fellow, my lord? he's as good at
105   any thing and yet a fool.

106. stalking-horse: a deceptive cover used by a hunter to get within shooting distance of his quarry.
107. the presentation of that: i.e., the appearance of being a fool.  Hymen: god of marriage.
106   He uses his folly like a stalking-horse and under
107   the presentation of that he shoots his wit.

           Enter HYMEN, ROSALIND, and CELIA.

Still music: soft music.
           Still Music.

108. mirth: joy.
108         Then is there mirth in heaven,
109-110. When earthly things made even / Atone together: i.e., when human affairs are smoothed out and everyone sings the same tune.
109         When earthly things made even
110             Atone together.
111         Good duke, receive thy daughter
112         Hymen from heaven brought her,

Andrea Commodi (1560-1648)
113             Yea, brought her hither,
114         That thou mightst join her hand with his
115         Whose heart within his bosom is.

           [To Duke Senior.]
116   To you I give myself, for I am yours.
           [To Orlando.]
117   To you I give myself, for I am yours.

118   If there be truth in sight, you are my daughter.

119   If there be truth in sight, you are my Rosalind.

120   If sight and shape be true,
121   Why then, my love adieu!

           [To Duke Senior.]
122   I'll have no father, if you be not he:
           [To Orlando.]
123   I'll have no husband, if you be not he:
           [To Phebe.]
124   Nor ne'er wed woman, if you be not she.

125         Peace, ho! I bar confusion:
126         'Tis I must make conclusion
127             Of these most strange events:
128         Here's eight that must take hands
129         To join in Hymen's bands,
130.  If truth holds true contents: i.e., if truth is true.
130             If truth holds true contents.
           [To Orlando and Rosalind.]
131. cross: disagreement.
131         You and you no cross shall part:
           [To Oliver and Celia.]
132         You and you are heart in heart
           [To Phebe.]
133. accord: assent.
133         You to his love must accord,
134. to: for.
134         Or have a woman to your lord:
           [To Touchstone and Audrey.]
135. sure together: securely joined.
135         You and you are sure together,
136         As the winter to foul weather.
           [To all four couples.]
137         Whiles a wedlock-hymn we sing,
138. Feed: satisfy.  questioning: mutual conversation.
139. That reason wonder may diminish: so that rational explanation may diminish amazement.
138         Feed yourselves with questioning;
139         That reason wonder may diminish,
140         How thus we met, and these things finish.

141. Juno's: Juno was the goddess of marriage.
141         Wedding is great Juno's crown:
142             O blessed bond of board and bed!
143         'Tis Hymen peoples every town;
144. High: solemn.
144             High wedlock then be honoured:
145         Honour, high honour and renown,
146         To Hymen, god of every town!

      DUKE SENIOR [To Celia.]
147   O my dear niece, welcome thou art to me!
148. Even daughter, welcome, in no less degree: i.e., as much as a daughter, welcome.
148   Even daughter, welcome, in no less degree.

149   I will not eat my word, now thou art mine;
150. Thy faith my fancy to thee doth combine: i.e., your faithful devotion to me now makes me unite with you in love.
150   Thy faith my fancy to thee doth combine.

           Enter Second Brother [JAQUES DE BOYS].

151   Let me have audience for a word or two:
152   I am the second son of old Sir Rowland,
153   That bring these tidings to this fair assembly.
154   Duke Frederick, hearing how that every day
155   Men of great worth resorted to this forest,
156. Address'd: made ready, called up. power: army.
157. In his own conduct: under his personal command.
156   Address'd a mighty power; which were on foot,
157   In his own conduct, purposely to take
158   His brother here and put him to the sword:
159   And to the skirts of this wild wood he came;
160   Where meeting with an old religious man,
161. question: conversation.
161   After some question with him, was converted
162   Both from his enterprise and from the world,
163   His crown bequeathing to his banish'd brother,
164   And all their lands restored to them again
165   That were with him exiled. This to be true,
166. engage: pledge.
166   I do engage my life.

166                                   Welcome, young man;
167. Thou offer'st fairly: you bring handsome gifts. —The gifts are named in the next two lines. To Oliver, the gift is the lands that Duke Frederick seized when Oliver failed to deliver Orlando to him. To Orlando the gift is the restored dukedom of Duke Senior, which Orlando, as husband of the Duke's only child (Rosalind), will inherit after the Duke's death.
171. begot: conceived.  172. every: every one.
173. shrewd: sorely difficult.
167   Thou offer'st fairly to thy brothers' wedding:
168   To one his lands withheld, and to the other
169   A land itself at large, a potent dukedom.
170   First, in this forest, let us do those ends
171   That here were well begun and well begot:
172   And after, every of this happy number
173   That have endured shrewd days and nights with us
174   Shall share the good of our returned fortune,
175. states: ranks.
175   According to the measure of their states.
176. new-fall'n: newly acquired.
176   Meantime, forget this new-fall'n dignity
177   And fall into our rustic revelry.
178. music: band of musicians.
179. to the measures fall: dance to the music.
178   Play, music! And you, brides and bridegrooms all,
179   With measure heap'd in joy, to the measures fall.

180. by your patience: with your indulgence.
180   Sir, by your patience. If I heard you rightly,
181   The duke hath put on a religious life
182. pompous: i.e., full of pomp and circumstance.
182   And thrown into neglect the pompous court?

183   He hath.

184. convertites: converts.
185. matter: sound sense.
184   To him will I : out of these convertites
185   There is much matter to be heard and learn'd.

           [To DUKE SENIOR.]
186   You to your former honour I bequeath;
187   Your patience and your virtue well deserves it:

           [To ORLANDO.]
188   You to a love that your true faith doth merit:

           [To OLIVER.]
189. great allies: i.e., powerful relations. —Oliver is brother to Orlando, who is now the next heir (by the right of Rosalind) to the dukedom. Oliver's previous vow to live and die a shepherd in the forest with "Aliena" has been forgotten.
190. long: i.e., long awaited and desired.
189   You to your land and love and great allies:

           [To SILVIUS.]
190   You to a long and well-deserved bed:

           [To TOUCHSTONE.]
191   And you to wrangling; for thy loving voyage
192   Is but for two months victuall'd. So, to your pleasures:
193   I am for other than for dancing measures.

194   Stay, Jaques, stay.

195. What you would have: i.e., whatever you want of me before I leave.
195   To see no pastime I. What you would have
196   I'll stay to know at your abandon'd cave.

197   Proceed, proceed. We'll begin these rites,
198   As I do trust they'll end, in true delights.