Philip Weller caricature
Philip and Weller hugging

Welcome to my web site, now under development for more than twenty years.   
-- Philip Weller, November 13, 1941 - February 1, 2021
Dr. Weller, an Eastern Washington University professor of English and Shakespearean scholar for more than 50 years.


Hamlet: Act 5, Scene 2

           Enter HAMLET and HORATIO.

      HAMLET
  1   So much for this, sir: now shall you see the other;
1. see the other: i.e., hear the other news. — Apparently we catch Hamlet and Horatio in the middle of a conversation about Hamlet's adventures from the time that he left Denmark until he returned.

  2   You do remember all the circumstance?

      HORATIO
  3   Remember it, my lord?

      HAMLET
  4   Sir, in my heart there was a kind of fighting,
  5   That would not let me sleep: methought I lay
  6   Worse than the mutines in the bilboes. Rashly—
6. the . .  bilboes: rebels in shackles.  Rashly: on impulse.

  7   And praised be rashness for it—let us know,
7. know: recognize, understand.

  8   Our indiscretion sometimes serves us well,
  9   When our deep plots do pall: and that should learn us
9. pall: fail.  learn: teach.

 10   There's a divinity that shapes our ends,
10. shapes our ends: gives final shape to the outcomes of our plans.

 11   Rough-hew them how we will—
11. Rough-hew them how we will: i.e., no matter how we make our initial plans.


      HORATIO
                                            That is most certain.

      HAMLET
 12   Up from my cabin,
 13   My sea-gown scarf'd about me, in the dark
 14   Groped I to find out them; had my desire.
14. Groped . . . them: I rummaged around to find out what they (Rosencrantz and Guildenstern) were up to.

 15   Finger'd their packet, and in fine withdrew
15. Finger'd: stole. in fine: at the end.

 16   To mine own room again; making so bold,
 17   My fears forgetting manners, to unseal
17. My fears forgetting manners: i.e., my fears making me forget my manners. ...more

 18   Their grand commission; where I found, Horatio—
18. Their grand commission: i.e., King Claudius's letter to England, entrusted to Rosencrantz and Guildenstern.

 19   O royal knavery!—an exact command,
 20   Larded with many several sorts of reasons
 21   Importing Denmark's health and England's too,
20-21. Larded: loaded.  Importing: relating to.

 22   With, ho! such bugs and goblins in my life,
22. bugs . . . goblins: bugaboos and hobgoblins.

 23   That, on the supervise, no leisure bated,
23. supervise: [first] reading. no leisure bated: i.e., no wasted time allowed.

 24   No, not to stay the grinding of the axe,
24. stay: wait for.

 25   My head should be struck off.

      HORATIO
                                               Is't possible?

      HAMLET
 26   Here's the commission: read it at more leisure.
26. the commission: i.e., the letter which demands that the King of England to chop off Hamlet's head.

 27   But wilt thou hear me how I did proceed?

      HORATIO
 28   I beseech you.

      HAMLET
 29   Being thus be-netted round with villanies—
 30   Or I could make a prologue to my brains,
 31   They had begun the play—I sat me down,
30-31. Or . . . play: i.e., before I could consciously pose the problem to my brain, it had started working on a plan.

 32   Devised a new commission, wrote it fair:
32. fair: i.e., with legible handwriting.

 33   I once did hold it, as our statists do,
33. statists: statesmen, public officials.

 34   A baseness to write fair and labour'd much
34. A baseness: i.e., a skill befitting men of low rank.

 35   How to forget that learning, but, sir, now
 36   It did me yeoman's service: wilt thou know
36. yeoman's: i.e., workman-like.

 37   The effect of what I wrote?
37. effect: purport.


      HORATIO
                                                Ay, good my lord.

      HAMLET
 38   An earnest conjuration from the king,
 39   As England was his faithful tributary,
 40   As love between them like the palm might flourish,
 41   As peace should still her wheaten garland wear
41. still: always. wheaten garland: garland of the harvest.

 42   And stand a comma 'tween their amities,
42. stand . . . amities: join together the loving friendship [of the kings]. ...more

 43   And many such-like 'As'es of great charge,
43. 'As'es of great charge: i.e., important sounding statements beginning with 'as'.

 44   That, on the view and knowing of these contents,
 45   Without debatement further, more or less,
 46   He should the bearers put to sudden death,
 47   Not shriving-time allow'd.
47. shriving-time: time for confession and absolution. —It was customary for even the worst criminal to have shriving time before his execution.


      HORATIO
                                           How was this seal'd?

      HAMLET
48. ordinant: ordaining the outcome.
 48   Why, even in that was heaven ordinant.
 49   I had my father's signet in my purse,
49. signet: signet ring. ...more

 50   Which was the model of that Danish seal;
50. model: small copy.  Danish seal: i.e., the royal seal.

 51   Folded the writ up in form of the other,
51. folded ... other: i.e., folded the fake document in the same way as the official one.

 52   Subscrib'd it, gave't the impression, placed it safely,
52. Subscrib'd . . . impression: signed and sealed it.

 53   The changeling never known. Now, the next day
52-53. placed . . . known: i.e., put the changeling in the diplomatic pouch without anyone knowing. ...more

 54   Was our sea-fight; and what to this was sequent
 55   Thou know'st already.
54-55. what . . . already: what happened afterwards you already know.


      HORATIO
56. go to't: i.e., are going to their death.
 56   So Guildenstern and Rosencrantz go to't.

      HAMLET
 57   Why, man, they did make love to this employment;
 58   They are not near my conscience; their defeat
58. defeat: ruin.

 59   Does by their own insinuation grow:
59. insinuation: winding their way into things.

 60   'Tis dangerous when the baser nature comes
60. baser: inferior.

 61   Between the pass and fell incensed points
 62   Of mighty opposites.
61-62. Between the pass and fell incensed points / Of mighty opposites: Between the thrusts of the mortally angry swords of mighty opponents.


      HORATIO
                                      Why, what a king is this!

      HAMLET
 63   Does it not, think'st thee, stand me now upon—
63. stand me now upon: i.e., rest upon me [as duty]. —Hamlet's question isn't completed until line 68.

 64   He that hath kill'd my king and whored my mother,
 65   Popp'd in between the election and my hopes,
65. election: —The King of Denmark was elected. ...more

 66   Thrown out his angle for my proper life,
66. angle: hook and line.  proper life: very life.

 67   And with such cozenage—is't not perfect conscience,
67. cozenage: trickery.

 68   To quit him with this arm? and is't not to be damn'd,
68. quit him: pay him back.

 69   To let this canker of our nature come
 70   In further evil?
69-70. canker of our nature: cancerous sore on human nature.  come / In: grow into.


      HORATIO
 71   It must be shortly known to him from England
 72   What is the issue of the business there.

      HAMLET
 73   It will be short: the interim is mine;
 74   And a man's life's no more than to say "One."
74. a man's . . . say "One": i.e., to kill a man takes no more time than to count to one.

 75   But I am very sorry, good Horatio,
 76   That to Laertes I forgot myself;
 77   For, by the image of my cause, I see
 78   The portraiture of his: I'll court his favours.
77-78. by . . . his: i.e., by thinking about my anger against King Claudius, I can understand Laertes' anger against me.

 79   But, sure, the bravery of his grief did put me
79. bravery: melodramatic expression.

 80   Into a towering passion.

      HORATIO
                                           Peace, who comes here?

           Enter [OSRIC,] a courtier.
Robin Williams as Osric
Robin Williams as Osric
--1996 film--


      OSRIC
 81   Your lordship is right welcome back to Denmark.

      HAMLET
 82   I humbly thank you, sir.

           [Aside to Horatio.]

                                            Dost know this water-fly?

      HORATIO
 83   No, my good lord.

      HAMLET
 84   Thy state is the more gracious; for 'tis a vice to
84. gracious: virtuous.

 85   know him. He hath much land, and fertile: let a
 86   beast be lord of beasts, and his crib shall stand at
 87   the king's mess: 'tis a chough; but, as I say,
85-87. let a beast . . . mess: i.e., if a beast owned as many cattle as Osric does, the beast could have his feed trough at the king's table.  chough: jackdaw.  The jackdaw is a member of the crow family that can be taught a word or two. Hamlet's point about Osric is that Osric talks a lot of nonsense.

 88   spacious in the possession of dirt.

      OSRIC
 89   Sweet lord, if your lordship were at leisure, I
 90   should impart a thing to you from his majesty.

      HAMLET
 91   I will receive it, sir, with all diligence of
 92   spirit. Put your bonnet to his right use; 'tis for
92. bonnet: hat. —I'm sure that the rich and silly Osric is trying to make a fashion statement with his hat. Maybe it was a Round Tipped Pleated Hat, which was a popular style about the time Hamlet was first put on stage.

 93   the head.

      OSRIC
 94   I thank your lordship, it is very hot.

      HAMLET
 95   No, believe me, 'tis very cold; the wind is
 96   northerly.

      OSRIC
 97   It is indifferent cold, my lord, indeed.
97. indifferent: somewhat.


      HAMLET
 98   But yet methinks it is very sultry and hot
 99   for my complexion.
99. complexion: bodily constitution.


      OSRIC
100   Exceedingly, my lord; it is very sultry—as
101   'twere—I cannot tell how. But, my lord, his
102   majesty bade me signify to you that he has laid a
103   great wager on your head: sir, this is the matter—

      HAMLET
104   I beseech you, remember—

           [Hamlet motions him to put on his hat.]

      OSRIC
105   Nay, good my lord; for my ease, in good faith.
105. for my ease: i.e., I am really more comfortable with my hat off.

106   Sir, here is newly come to court Laertes; believe
107   me, an absolute gentleman, full of most excellent
107. absolute: complete.

108   differences, of very soft society and great showing:
107-108. full . . . showing: i.e., full of attractive characteristics and having agreeable manners and a pleasant appearance.

109   indeed, to speak feelingly of him, he is the card or
110   calendar of gentry, for you shall find in him the
109-110. card or calendar of gentry: chart or register of all gentlemanly qualities.

111   continent of what part a gentleman would see.
111. continent . . . see: i.e., the container of every quality a gentleman would admire in another gentleman.


      HAMLET
112   Sir, his definement suffers no perdition in you;
112. definement: definition.  no perdition in you: i.e., no loss in your description. Hamlet is mocking Osric's fancy talk.

113   though, I know, to divide him inventorially would
113. divide him inventorially: i.e., enumerate his graces.

114   dozy the arithmetic of memory, and yet but yaw
114. dozy: make dizzy. yaw: continually wander off course.

115   neither, in respect of his quick sail. But, in the
116   verity of extolment, I take him to be a soul of
117   great article; and his infusion of such dearth and
115-117. But . . . article: but in the truth of praise, I take him to be a very notable personage.

118   rareness, as, to make true diction of him, his
117-118. his . . . rareness: his essential character of such scarceness and rareness.  make true diction: speak truly.

119   semblable is his mirror; and who else would trace
120   him, his umbrage, nothing more.
118-120. his semblable ... nothing more: his only likeness is to be found in his mirror, and anyone else who tries to be like him is merely his shadow, nothing more.


      OSRIC
121   Your lordship speaks most infallibly of him.

      HAMLET
122   The concernancy, sir? Why do we wrap the gentleman
122. concernancy: relevance.

123   in our more rawer breath?
123. more rawer breath: i.e., words too crude.  —These three words are redundant in both sound and sense.


      OSRIC
124   Sir?

      HORATIO
125   Is't not possible to understand in another tongue?
125. Is't . . . tongue?: i.e., Can't you to understand the kind of language you use when someone else speaks it?

126   You will do't, sir, really.
126. You ... really: i.e., you can understand what Hamlet is saying if you really try (??).


      HAMLET
127   What imports the nomination of this
128   gentleman?
127-128. What imports the nomination of this gentleman?: What is the significance of mentioning this gentleman?


      OSRIC
129   Of Laertes?

      HORATIO
130   His purse is empty already; all's golden words
131   are spent.

      HAMLET
132   Of him, sir.

      OSRIC
133   I know you are not ignorant—

      HAMLET
134   I would you did, sir; yet, in faith, if you did,
135   it would not much approve me. Well, sir?
134-135. I would ... approve me: I wish you did know that I am not ignorant of Laertes' character, but if you did know that, it would not be to my credit. Remember that Hamlet has already told Horatio (lines 75-76) that he is sorry that he treated Laertes badly.


      OSRIC
136   You are not ignorant of what excellence
137   Laertes is—

      HAMLET
138   I dare not confess that, lest I should compare
139   with him in excellence; but, to know a man
138-139. I should compare with him in excellence: i.e., I might be tempted to compare myself with him.

140   well, were to know himself.
139-140. but  . . . himself: —This is usually explained as meaning, "for, to recognize excellence in another man, one must know oneself." ...more


      OSRIC
141   I mean, sir, for his weapon; but in the
142   imputation laid on him by them, in his
141-142. in the imputation laid on him by them: i.e., in popular opinion.

143   meed he's unfellowed.
143. meed: merit. unfellowed: unmatched.


      HAMLET
144   What's his weapon?

Sword Girdle
and
Hanger
      OSRIC
145   Rapier and dagger.

      HAMLET
146   That's two of his weapons: but, well.

      OSRIC
147   The king, sir, hath wagered with him six Barbary
148   horses: against the which he has impawn'd, as I take
148. impawn'd: wagered.

149   it, six French rapiers and poniards, with their
149. poniards: daggers.

150   assigns, as girdle, hangers, and so: three of the
150. assigns: accessories. hangers: —See image above.

151   carriages, in faith, are very dear to fancy, very
151. carriages: —See dialogue below.

152   responsive to the hilts, most delicate carriages,
151-152. very dear to fancy: tickle the fancy. very responsive to: matching well (in color and style).

153   and of very liberal conceit.
153. liberal conceit: elegant design.


      HAMLET
154   What call you the carriages?

      HORATIO
155   I knew you must be edified by the margent ere
155. must be edified by the margent: would require enlightenment from a marginal note.

156   you had done.

      OSRIC
157   The carriages, sir, are the hangers.

Cannon
and
Carriage

      HAMLET
158   The phrase would be more german to the matter,
159   if we could carry cannon by our sides: I would
160   it might be "hangers" till then. But, on: six Barbary
161   horses against six French swords, their assigns,
162   and three liberal-conceited carriages; that's the
163   French bet against the Danish. Why is this "impawn'd,"
164   as you call it?

      OSRIC
165   The king, sir, hath laid, that in a dozen passes
165. laid: wagered. passes: rounds.  ...more

166   between yourself and him, he shall not exceed you
167   three hits: he hath laid on twelve for nine; and it
167. he hath laid on twelve for nine: he is offering 4-3 odds.

168   would come to immediate trial, if your lordship
169   would vouchsafe the answer.
169. the answer: i.e., agreement to accept the offer of a fencing match with Laertes.  — However, in his reply ("How if I answer 'no'?") Hamlet uses the word "answer" in its more common sense.


      HAMLET
170   How if I answer "no"?

      OSRIC
171   I mean, my lord, the opposition of your person in
172   trial.

      HAMLET
173   Sir, I will walk here in the hall: if it please his
174   majesty, 'tis the breathing time of day with me.
174. breathing time of day with me: my usual hour for exercise.

175   Let the foils be brought, the gentleman willing,
176   and the king hold his purpose, I will win for him
177   an I can; if not, I will gain nothing but my shame
177. an I can: if I can.

178   and the odd hits.

      OSRIC
179   Shall I re-deliver you e'en so?

      HAMLET
180   To this effect, sir; after what flourish your nature
180-181. To this effect, sir; after what flourish your nature will: i.e., deliver my message, using whatever flourishes of language that appeal to your nature.

181   will.

      OSRIC
182   I commend my duty to your lordship.
182. commend my duty: —Osric means, "offer my dutiful respects," but Hamlet makes fun of him by misinterpreting his words to mean "praise my own courtesy."


           [Exit Osric.]

      HAMLET
183   Yours.—He does well to commend it himself;
184   there are no tongues else for's turn.
184. for's turn: for his turn; i.e., that will do him service.


      HORATIO
185   This lapwing runs away with the shell on his
185. lapwing: —The lapwing is a bird that was thought to be so foolish that it would, when it was hatched, run about with its shell still on its head. Apparently Osric's hat looks a lot like an eggshell, as does the one in the picture at line 92.

186   head.

      HAMLET
187   'A did comply, sir, with his dug, before 'a sucked it.
187. 'A: he. —This is slangy.  comply with his dug: i.e., treat his mother's nipple with ceremonious politeness.

188   Thus has he—and many more of the same breed
189   that I know the drossy age dotes on—only got the
189. drossy: i.e., worthless, frivolous. ...more

190   tune of the time and, out of an habit of encounter,
190. out . . . encounter: from a habitual way of talking.

191   a kind of yesty collection, which carries them
191. yesty: yeasty, frothy. collection: i.e., collection of fashionable words and phrases.

192   through and through the most fann'd and winnow'd
193   opinions; and do but blow them to their trial,
192-193. fann'd . . . opinions: i.e., those who believe they have the most refined and correct opinions.

194   the bubbles are out.
193-194. do but blow them to their trial, the bubbles are out: but just blow on them a little bit, to test them, and their bubbles are burst.


           Enter a LORD.

      Lord
195   My lord, his majesty commended him to you by
196   young Osric, who brings back to him that you attend
197   him in the hall: he sends to know if your pleasure
198   hold to play with Laertes, or that you will take longer
199   time.

      HAMLET
200   I am constant to my purposes; they follow the
200. I am constant to my purposes: I'm sticking to my intentions.

201   king's pleasure: if his fitness speaks, mine is
202   ready; now or whensoever, provided I be so
201-202. If his fitness speaks, mine is ready: i.e., if he's asking because this is a good time for him, it's a good time for me.

203   able as now.

      Lord
204   The king and queen and all are coming down.

      HAMLET
205   In happy time.
205. In happy time: i.e., I'm glad of it.


      Lord
206   The queen desires you to use some gentle
207   entertainment to Laertes before you fall to play.
206-207. use some gentle entertainment to Laertes before you fall to play: i.e., speak a few courteous words to Laertes before you begin the fencing match.


      HAMLET
208   She well instructs me.

           [Exit Lord.]

      HORATIO
209   You will lose, my lord.

      HAMLET
210   I do not think so: since he went into France, I
211   have been in continual practice: I shall win at the
212   odds. But thou wouldst not think how ill all's here
213   about my heart: but it is no matter.

      HORATIO
214   Nay, good my lord—

      HAMLET
215   It is but foolery; but it is such a kind of
216   gain-giving, as would perhaps trouble a woman.
216. gain-giving: misgiving.


      HORATIO
217   If your mind dislike any thing, obey it: I will
218   forestall their repair hither, and say you are not fit.

      HAMLET
219   Not a whit, we defy augury: there's a special
220   providence in the fall of a sparrow. If it be now,
219-220. special providence in the fall of a sparrow: Jesus, encouraging his disciples to fear nothing in their evangelism, said, "Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing? and one of them shall not fall on the ground without your Father." (Matthew 10:29)

221   'tis not to come; if it be not to come, it will be
222   now; if it be not now, yet it will come. The
223   readiness is all. Since no man of aught he leaves
224   knows what is't to leave betimes, let be.
223-224. Since . . . betimes: i.e. since no man knows, by looking back on his life, what is the best time to leave his life.


           A table prepar'd, Trumpets, Drums, and
           Officers with cushions, foils, daggers;
Officers: high-ranking servants.

           KING, QUEEN, LAERTES, [OSRIC,]
           and all the State.
State: nobles.


      KING
225   Come, Hamlet, come, and take this hand from me.

           [The King puts Laertes' hand into Hamlet's.]

      HAMLET
226   Give me your pardon, sir: I've done you wrong;
227   But pardon't, as you are a gentleman.
228   This presence knows,
228. presence: assembled court.

229   And you must needs have heard, how I am punish'd
230   With a sore distraction. What I have done,
230. sore distraction: i.e., madness.

231   That might your nature, honour and exception
231. exception: disapproval, objection.

232   Roughly awake, I here proclaim was madness.
233   Was't Hamlet wrong'd Laertes? Never Hamlet:
234   If Hamlet from himself be ta'en away,
235   And when he's not himself does wrong Laertes,
236   Then Hamlet does it not, Hamlet denies it.
237   Who does it, then? His madness: if't be so,
238   Hamlet is of the faction that is wrong'd;
239   His madness is poor Hamlet's enemy.
240   Sir, in this audience,
240. in this audience: i.e., before everyone here.

241   Let my disclaiming from a purposed evil
241. my disclaiming from a purposed evil: my declaration that I intended no harm.

242   Free me so far in your most generous thoughts,
242. Free: absolve.

243   That I have shot mine arrow o'er the house,
244   And hurt my brother.

      LAERTES
                                     I am satisfied in nature,
245   Whose motive, in this case, should stir me most
246   To my revenge: but in my terms of honour
244-246. I . . . revenge: i.e., you have satisfied my personal feelings, whose urgings, in this case, should stir me the most to take revenge.  in . . . honour: i.e., to protect my honor.

247   I stand aloof; and will no reconcilement,
248   Till by some elder masters, of known honour,
249   I have a voice and precedent of peace,
250   To keep my name ungored. But till that time,
248-250. Till . . . ungored: until by [the advice and example of] some experts [in the code of honor], who are widely acknowledged to be honorable, I have an authoritative opinion and precedent [which assure me that] I can keep my name free of injury.

251   I do receive your offer'd love like love,
252   And will not wrong it.

      HAMLET
                                          I embrace it freely;
253   And will this brothers' wager frankly play.
253. brothers' wager: friendly match.  frankly: freely; i.e., without any suspicions or reservations.

254   Give us the foils. Come on.

      LAERTES
                                               Come, one for me.

      HAMLET
255   I'll be your foil, Laertes: in mine ignorance
255. foil: shiny sheet of metal placed behind a candle to make it shine brighter and give more light.  in mine ignorance: i.e., in comparison to my lack of skill in fencing.

256   Your skill shall, like a star i' the darkest night,
257   Stick fiery off indeed.
257. Stick fiery off: blaze out in contrast.


      LAERTES
                                          You mock me, sir.

      HAMLET
258   No, by this hand.

      KING
259   Give them the foils, young Osric. Cousin Hamlet,
260   You know the wager?

      HAMLET
                                      Very well, my lord
261   Your grace hath laid the odds o' th' weaker side.
261. laid the odds: i.e. wagered a higher stake.


      KING
262   I do not fear it; I have seen you both:
263   But since he is better'd, we have therefore odds.
263. is better'd: has improved with practice.(?)


      LAERTES
264   This is too heavy, let me see another.
264. This is too heavy, let me see another: —I believe this must be Laertes' excuse to pick his own foil, the one that has a sharp point and is treated with poison.


      HAMLET
265   This likes me well. These foils have all a length?
265. likes: pleases. a length: the same length.


           [They prepare to play.]

      OSRIC
266   Ay, my good lord.

      KING
267   Set me the stoups of wine upon that table.
267. stoups: tankards.

268   If Hamlet give the first or second hit,
269   Or quit in answer of the third exchange,
269. quit in answer of the third exchange: pay back Laertes' win in the third round (?).  Apparently any little win by Hamlet will be given a grand celebration.

270   Let all the battlements their ordnance fire:
271   The king shall drink to Hamlet's better breath;
272   And in the cup an union shall he throw,
272. union: pearl.

273   Richer than that which four successive kings
274   In Denmark's crown have worn. Give me the cups;
275   And let the kettle to the trumpet speak,
275. kettle: kettle-drum.

276   The trumpet to the cannoneer without,
277   The cannons to the heavens, the heavens to earth,
278   "Now the king drinks to Hamlet." Come, begin:

           Trumpets the while.

279   And you, the judges, bear a wary eye.

      HAMLET
280   Come on, sir.

Laurence Olivier as Hamlet, Terence Morgan as Laertes
--1948 film--


      LAERTES
                            Come, my lord.

           [They play and Hamlet scores a hit.]

      HAMLET
                                                     One.

      LAERTES
                                                               No.

      HAMLET
                                                                       Judgment.

Alan Bates as King Claudius
--1990 film--

      OSRIC
281   A hit, a very palpable hit.

      LAERTES
                                             Well; again.

      KING
282   Stay; give me drink. Hamlet, this pearl is thine;

           [He drops the pearl into Hamlet's cup.]

283   Here's to thy health. Give him the cup.

           Drum, trumpets [sound a] flourish. A piece
piece: cannon.

           goes off.

      HAMLET
284   I'll play this bout first; set it by awhile. Come.

           [They play again.]

285   Another hit; what say you?

      LAERTES
286   A touch, a touch, I do confess.

      KING
287   Our son shall win.

      QUEEN
                                      He's fat, and scant of breath.
287. fat: sweaty.

288   Here, Hamlet, take my napkin, rub thy brows;
288. napkin: handkerchief.


           [The queen picks up the cup
           which the king offered to Hamlet.]

289   The queen carouses to thy fortune, Hamlet.
289. carouses: drinks a toast.  thy fortune: your good luck.


      HAMLET
Glenn Close as Gertrude
Glenn Close as Queen Gertrude
--1990 film--

290   Good madam!

      KING
                               Gertrude, do not drink.

      QUEEN
291   I will, my lord; I pray you, pardon me.

      KING [Aside.]
292   It is the poison'd cup: it is too late.

           [The queen drinks, then offers
           Hamlet the cup.]

      HAMLET
293   I dare not drink yet, madam; by and by.

      QUEEN
294   Come, let me wipe thy face.

      LAERTES [Aside to the king.]
295   My lord, I'll hit him now.

      KING
                                              I do not think't.

      LAERTES [Aside.]
296   And yet 'tis almost 'gainst my conscience.

      HAMLET
297   Come, for the third, Laertes: you but dally;
298   I pray you, pass with your best violence;
299   I am afeard you make a wanton of me.
299. make a wanton of me: make a spoiled child of me.


      LAERTES
300   Say you so? come on.

           [They play to a draw.]

      OSRIC
301   Nothing, neither way.

           [Hamlet turns back to his mother.]

      LAERTES
302   Have at you now!

           [Laertes wounds Hamlet; Hamlet
           knocks Laertes' rapier from his hand
           and picks it up.]

      KING
                                  Part them; they are incensed.

      HAMLET
303   Nay, come, again.

           [Hamlet wounds Laertes. The Queen falls.]

      OSRIC
                                    Look to the queen there, ho!

      HORATIO
304   They bleed on both sides. How is it, my lord?

      OSRIC
305   How is't, Laertes?

      LAERTES
306   Why, as a woodcock to mine own springe, Osric;
306. woodcock: a bird which was reputed to be very stupid. springe: trap.

307   I am justly kill'd with mine own treachery.

      HAMLET
308   How does the queen?

      KING
                                       She swoons to see them bleed.
Penny Downie as dying Queen Gertrude
Penny Downie as Queen Gertrude
--2009 film--


      QUEEN
309   No, no, the drink, the drink—O my dear Hamlet—
310   The drink, the drink! I am poison'd.

           [Dies.]

      HAMLET
311   O villany! Ho! let the door be lock'd:
312   Treachery! Seek it out.

      LAERTES
313   It is here, Hamlet: Hamlet, thou art slain;
314   No medicine in the world can do thee good;
315   In thee there is not half an hour of life;
316   The treacherous instrument is in thy hand,
317   Unbated and envenom'd: the foul practise
317. Unbated: not blunted, sharp. foul practise: vile plot.

318   Hath turn'd itself on me. Lo, here I lie,
319   Never to rise again: thy mother's poison'd:
320   I can no more: the king, the king's to blame.
320. I can no more: I can do or say nothing more.


      HAMLET
321   The point envenom'd too!
322   Then, venom, to thy work.

           [Stabs the King.]

      All
323   Treason! treason!
Hamlet kills King Claudius by Gustave Moreau
Hamlet kills king Claudius
by
Gustave Moreau


      KING
324   O, yet defend me, friends; I am but hurt.

      HAMLET
325   Here, thou incestuous, murderous, damned Dane,
326   Drink off this potion. Is thy union here?

           [Forces the poisoned drink down the
           King's throat.]

327   Follow my mother.

           [King dies.]

      LAERTES
                                   He is justly served;
328   It is a poison temper'd by himself.
328. temper'd: mixed.

329   Exchange forgiveness with me, noble Hamlet:
330   Mine and my father's death come not upon thee,
331   Nor thine on me.

           [Dies.]

      HAMLET
332   Heaven make thee free of it! I follow thee.
332. make thee free: absolve you.

333   I am dead, Horatio. Wretched queen, adieu!
334   You that look pale and tremble at this chance,
335   That are but mutes or audience to this act,
335. mutes: silent spectators.

336   Had I but time—as this fell sergeant, death,
336. fell: cruel. sergeant: sheriff's officer.

337   Is strict in his arrest—O, I could tell you—
338   But let it be. Horatio, I am dead;
339   Thou livest. Report me and my cause aright
340   To the unsatisfied.
340. the unsatisfied: i.e., those who want satisfactory answers to questions about what has just happened.  I'm guessing that Hamlet doesn't want to leave behind a reputation as a treasonous murderer.


      HORATIO
                                     Never believe it:
341   I am more an antique Roman than a Dane:
341. antique Roman: ancient Roman; i.e., one who will commit suicide on such an occasion. (It was thought that Roman servants would commit suicide to follow their masters in death).

342   Here's yet some liquor left.

      HAMLET
                                   As thou'rt a man,
343   Give me the cup: let go; by heaven, I'll have't.
344   O good Horatio, what a wounded name,
345   Things standing thus unknown, shall live behind me!
346   If thou didst ever hold me in thy heart
347   Absent thee from felicity awhile,
348   And in this harsh world draw thy breath in pain,
349   To tell my story.

           March afar off [and a shot within].

                                   What warlike noise is this?

      OSRIC
350   Young Fortinbras, with conquest come from Poland,
350. with conquest: i.e., having conquered his opponent.

351   To the ambassadors of England gives
352   This warlike volley.

      HAMLET
                                      O, I die, Horatio;
353   The potent poison quite o'er-crows my spirit:
353. o'er-crows: triumphs over.  The term is derived from cockfighting.

354   I cannot live to hear the news from England;
355   But I do prophesy the election lights
356   On Fortinbras: he has my dying voice;
356. voice: support, vote.

357   So tell him, with the occurrents, more and less,
358   Which have solicited. The rest is silence.
357-358. the occurrents, more and less, / Which have solicited: the events, big and small, which have motivated [what just happened here]. 


           [Dies.]

      HORATIO
359   Now cracks a noble heart. Good night sweet prince:
360   And flights of angels sing thee to thy rest!

           [March within.]

361   Why does the drum come hither?

           Enter FORTINBRAS with the
           [English] Ambassadors.

      FORTINBRAS
362   Where is this sight?

      HORATIO
                                         What is it ye would see?
363   If aught of woe or wonder, cease your search.

      FORTINBRAS
364   This quarry cries on havoc. O proud death,
364. This quarry cries on havoc: this heap of corpses proclaims that there was a massacre.

365   What feast is toward in thine eternal cell,
365. toward: in preparation.

366   That thou so many princes at a shot
367   So bloodily hast struck?

      Ambassador
                                          The sight is dismal;
368   And our affairs from England come too late:
369   The ears are senseless that should give us hearing,
369. senseless: i.e., deaf.

370   To tell him his commandment is fulfill'd,
371   That Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are dead:
372   Where should we have our thanks?

      HORATIO
                                      Not from his mouth,
372. his: i.e., the King's.

373   Had it the ability of life to thank you:
374   He never gave commandment for their death.
375   But since, so jump upon this bloody question,
375. jump: precisely. this bloody question: this bloody struggle.

376   You from the Polack wars, and you from England,
377   Are here arriv'd, give order that these bodies
378   High on a stage be placed to the view;
378. stage: platform.

379   And let me speak to the yet unknowing world
380   How these things came about. So shall you hear
381   Of carnal, bloody, and unnatural acts,
382   Of accidental judgments, casual slaughters,
382. judgments: retributions. casual: happening by chance.

383   Of deaths put on by cunning and forced cause,
383. put on: instigated.  forced cause: pretended justification.

384   And, in this upshot, purposes mistook
385   Fall'n on th' inventors' heads: all this can I
384-385. purposes mistook / Fall'n on th' inventors' heads: i.e., plots misfiring and blowing up in the faces of the plotters. 

386   Truly deliver.

      FORTINBRAS
                                  Let us haste to hear it,
387   And call the noblest to the audience.
387. And call the noblest to the audience: and ask the most noble people to listen. ...more

388   For me, with sorrow I embrace my fortune:
389   I have some rights of memory in this kingdom,
389. of memory: still living within men's memory.

390   Which now to claim my vantage doth invite me.
390. vantage: i.e., best legal claim to the throne of Denmark.


      HORATIO
391   Of that I shall have also cause to speak,
391 that: i.e., the justice of Fortinbras' claim to the throne.

392   And from his mouth whose voice will draw on more;
392. from . . . more: i.e., on behalf of Hamlet, whose support [of Fortinbras] will garner the support of others.

393   But let this same be presently perform'd,
393. this same: i.e., the honor to be done to Hamlet's body.

394   Even while men's minds are wild; lest more mischance
394. wild: distraught, full of confusion.

395   On plots and errors, happen.

      FORTINBRAS
                                                Let four captains
396   Bear Hamlet, like a soldier, to the stage;
397   For he was likely, had he been put on,
397. been put on: been put to the test (by becoming king).

398   To have prov'd most royal: and, for his passage,
398. prov'd: proved to be.  passage: death.

399   The soldiers' music and the rites of war
400   Speak loudly for him.
401   Take up the bodies: such a sight as this
402   Becomes the field, but here shows much amiss.
402. Becomes the field, but here shows much amiss: befits the battlefield, but here is out of place.

403   Go, bid the soldiers shoot.

           Exeunt.