Jones, Ernest. "The Oedipus-Complex as An Explanation of Hamlet's
Mystery: A Study in Motive." The American Journal of Psychology 21.1 (January, 1910): 72-113.
PAGE  97

EXPLANATION OF HAMLET'S MYSTERY

that the weaning is incomplete so that he is able to fall in love
only with women that resemble the mother; the latter occur-
rence is a frequent cause of marriage between relatives, as has
been interestingly pointed out by Abraham.1  The maternal in-
fluence may also manifest itself by imparting a strikingly tender
feminine side to the later character.2  When the aroused feeling
is intensely "repressed" and associated with shame, guilt, etc.,
the memory of it may be so completely submerged that it be-
comes impossible not only to revive it but even to experience
any similar feeling, i.e., of attraction for the opposite sex.
This may declare itself in pronounced misogyny, or even, when
combined with other factors, in actual homosexuality, as
Sadger3 has shewn.
      The attitude towards the successful rival, namely the father,
also varies with the extent to which the aroused feelings have
been "repressed."  If this is only slight, then the natural re-
sentment against the father may later on be more or less openly
manifested, a rebellion which occurs commonly enough, though
the original source of it is not recognised.  To this source many
social revolutionaries owe the original impetus of their rebellion
against authority, as can often be plainly traced--for instance
in Shelley's case.  If the "repression" is more intense, then
the hostility towards the father is also concealed; this is usually
brought about by the development of the opposite sentiment,
namely of an exaggerated regard and respect for him, and a
morbid solicitude for his welfare, which completely cover the
true underlying relation.  The illustration of the attitude of son
to parent is so transpicuous in the Oedipus legend,4 as developed
for instance in Sophocles' tragedy, that the group of mental
processes concerned is generally known under the name of
"Oedipus-complex."
      We are now in a position to expand and complete the sug-


      1Abraham: Verwandtenehe und Neurose. Berl. Gesell. f. Psy-
chiatr. u. Nervenkrankh, Nov. 8, 1908. Neurolog. Centralbl., 1908,
S. 1150.
      2This trait in Hamlet's character has often been the subject of com-
ment. See especially Bodenstedt, Hamlet. Westermann's illustrierte
Monatshefte, 1865; we mentioned above Vining's suggestion that
Hamlet was really a woman. That the same trait was prominent in
Shakespeare himself is well known, a fact which the appellation of
"gentle Will" sufficiently recalls.
      3Sadger: Fragment der Psychoanalyse eines Homosexuellen. Jahr-
buch f. sex. Zwischenstufen, 1908, Bd. IX. Ist die Kontäre Sexual-
empfindung heilbar? Zeitschr. f. Sexualwissenschaft, Dez., 1908. Zur
Ätiologie der konträren Sexualempfindung. Mediz. Klinik, 1909.
Nr. 2.
      4See Freud: Traumdeutung, 1900, S. 181. Interesting expositions
of the mythological aspects of the subject are given by Abraham,
Traum und Mythus, 1909, and Rank, Op. cit.