Williams, Raymond. "Monologue in Macbeth."
Teaching the Text. Ed. Susanne Kappeler and Norman Bryson. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1983. 180-202. 282-299.

Thesis: Williams objects to the common understanding of "soliloquy" as "inner speech." He points out that are instances of "inner speech" in which the character is not alone on stage; instances in which the character is alone on stage, but not really engaging in "inner speech"; and many varieties of audiences and purposes for monologues. In order to refine the understanding of soliloquy and monologue, Williams constructs a set of categories, which are, in outline:

Williams then proceeds to point out examples of occurrences of the different sorts of monologue in Macbeth.

At the beginning of the final section of his essay, Williams says, "the point of distinguishing and illustrating these types of monologue is not classification but an extension of vocabulary in the service of analytic rather than annotative ('critical') reading" (198). However, although he goes on to muse, in a very abstract way, about how this new vocabulary could be used, he never does use it to make a critical point about Macbeth or anything else.

Bottom Line: A brand-new set of pigeon-holes, but no pigeons.