Philip Weller caricature
Philip and Weller hugging

Welcome to my web site, now under development for more than twenty years.   
-- Philip Weller, November 13, 1941 - February 1, 2021
Dr. Weller, an Eastern Washington University professor of English and Shakespearean scholar for more than 50 years.

Othello: Act 1, Scene 3


           Enter DUKE, Senators and Officers.

      DUKE
  1   There is no composition in these news
1. composition: consistency.

  2   That gives them credit.

      First Senator
                       Indeed, they are disproportion'd;
2. disproportion'd: inconsistent.

  3   My letters say a hundred and seven galleys.
Senators looking at alarming reports from Cyprus
"And mine, a hundred and forty"

      DUKE
  4   And mine, a hundred and forty.

      Second Senator
                      And mine, two hundred!
  5   But though they jump not on a just account, —
5. jump: agree. just: exact. account: accounting, number.

  6   As in these cases, where the aim reports,
6. the aim: i.e., conjecture.

  7   'Tis oft with difference — yet do they all confirm
  8   A Turkish fleet, and bearing up to Cyprus.

      DUKE
  9   Nay, it is possible enough to judgment:
 10   I do not so secure me in the error
 11   But the main article I do approve
10-11. I do not so secure me in the error, / But the main article I do approve: I don't find so much safety in the discrepancies [in the number of Turkish ships reported] but I believe the main message [that the Turks are mounting an attack on Cyprus].

 12   In fearful sense.

      Sailor (Within.)
                            What, ho! what, ho! what, ho!

      Officer
 13   A messenger from the galleys.

           Enter SAILOR.

      DUKE
                               Now, what's the business?

      Sailor
 14   The Turkish preparation makes for Rhodes;
14. preparation: force prepared for war.

 15   So was I bid report here to the state
 16   By Signior Angelo.

      DUKE
 17   How say you by this change?
17. by: about.


      First Senator
                                        This cannot be,
 18   By no assay of reason: 'tis a pageant,
18. assay of reason: test of common sense. pageant: mere show.

 19   To keep us in false gaze. When we consider
19. in false gaze: looking in the wrong direction.

 20   The importancy of Cyprus to the Turk,
 21   And let ourselves again but understand,
 22   That as it more concerns the Turk than Rhodes,
 23   So may he with more facile question bear it,
23. with . . . it: capture it (Cyprus) more easily.

 24   For that it stands not in such warlike brace,
24. brace: readiness, state of defense.

 25   But altogether lacks the abilities
25. abilities: defensive capabilities.

 26   That Rhodes is dress'd in: if we make thought of this,
 27   We must not think the Turk is so unskilful
27. unskilful: unable to weigh the situation, undiscriminating.

 28   To leave that latest which concerns him first,
28. latest: last.

 29   Neglecting an attempt of ease and gain,
29. of ease and gain: i.e., that will yield easy success.

 30   To wake and wage a danger profitless.
30. wage: risk.


      DUKE
 31   Nay, in all confidence, he's not for Rhodes.

      Officer
 32   Here is more news.

           Enter a MESSENGER.

      Messenger
 33   The Ottomites, reverend and gracious,
 34   Steering with due course towards the isle of Rhodes,
 35   Have there injointed them with an after fleet.
35. injointed them: joined themselves. after: second.


      First Senator
 36   Ay, so I thought. How many, as you guess?

      Messenger
 37   Of thirty sail: and now they do restem
37. restem: steer again.

 38   Their backward course, bearing with frank appearance
38. with frank appearance: openly, without disguising their intention.

 39   Their purposes toward Cyprus. Signior Montano,
 40   Your trusty and most valiant servitor,
 41   With his free duty recommends you thus,
41. his free duty: i.e., expressions of unwavering loyalty. recommends you: reports to you.

 42   And prays you to believe him.

      DUKE
 43   'Tis certain, then, for Cyprus.
 44   Marcus Luccicos, is not he in town?

      First Senator
 45   He's now in Florence.

      DUKE
 46   Write from us to him; post-post-haste. Dispatch!

      First Senator
 47   Here comes Brabantio and the valiant Moor.

           Enter BRABANTIO, OTHELLO, CASSIO,
           IAGO, RODERIGO, and OFFICERS.

      DUKE
 48   Valiant Othello, we must straight employ you
 49   Against the general enemy Ottoman.
49. general enemy: enemy of all Christendom.


           [To Brabantio.]

 50   I did not see you; welcome, gentle signior;
50. gentle: noble.

 51   We lack'd your counsel and your help tonight.

      BRABANTIO
 52   So did I yours. Good your grace, pardon me;
 53   Neither my place nor aught I heard of business
 54   Hath raised me from my bed, nor doth the general care
 55   Take hold on me, for my particular grief
55. particular: private.

 56   Is of so flood-gate and o'erbearing nature
56. flood-gate: i.e., overwhelming (like the onrushing water when flood-gates are opened).

 57   That it engluts and swallows other sorrows
57. engluts: engulfs.

 58   And it is still itself.

      DUKE
                             Why, what's the matter?

      BRABANTIO
 59   My daughter! O, my daughter!

      All
                               Dead?

      BRABANTIO
                                          Ay, to me;
 60   She is abus'd, stol'n from me, and corrupted
60. abus'd: deceived, deluded.

 61   By spells and medicines bought of mountebanks;
61. mountebanks: snake-oil salesmen.

 62   For nature so preposterously to err,
62. nature . . . err: human nature to make such a preposterous mistake.

 63   Being not deficient, blind, or lame of sense,
63. deficient: defective.

 64   Sans witchcraft could not.
64. Sans witchcraft could not: Without witchcraft [nature] could not [make such a mistake].


      DUKE
 65   Whoe'er he be that in this foul proceeding
 66   Hath thus beguiled your daughter of herself
 67   And you of her, the bloody book of law
 68   You shall yourself read in the bitter letter
68. the bitter letter: the harsh letter of the law.

 69   After your own sense, yea, though our proper son
69. After your own sense: giving it your own interpretation. our proper: my own.

 70   Stood in your action.
70. Stood in your action: was the one who faced your charges.


      BRABANTIO
                                     Humbly I thank your grace.
 71   Here is the man, this Moor, whom now, it seems,
 72   Your special mandate for the state-affairs
 73   Hath hither brought.

      All
                                        We are very sorry for't.

      DUKE [To Othello.]
 74   What, in your own part, can you say to this?

      BRABANTIO
 75   Nothing, but this is so.

      OTHELLO
 76   Most potent, grave, and reverend signiors,
77. approv'd: proved.
 77   My very noble and approv'd good masters,
 78   That I have ta'en away this old man's daughter,
 79   It is most true; true, I have married her:
80. The very head and front of my offending: i.e., my offense at the utmost. front: forehead, face. 81. Rude: unpolished.
 80   The very head and front of my offending
 81   Hath this extent, no more. Rude am I in my speech,
 82   And little bless'd with the soft phrase of peace:
83. seven years' pith: the strength of [a boy of] seven years. 84. Till now some nine moons wasted: until some nine months ago (during which time Othello has evidently not been on active duty, but in Venice).
 83   For since these arms of mine had seven years' pith,
 84   Till now some nine moons wasted, they have used
 85   Their dearest action in the tented field,
 86   And little of this great world can I speak,
 87   More than pertains to feats of broil and battle,
 88   And therefore little shall I grace my cause
 89   In speaking for myself. Yet, by your gracious patience,
90. round: plain.
 90   I will a round unvarnish'd tale deliver
 91   Of my whole course of love; what drugs, what charms,
 92   What conjuration and what mighty magic,
93. withal: with.
 93   For such proceeding I am charged withal,
 94   I won his daughter.

      BRABANTIO
                         A maiden never bold;
95-96. her motion / Blush'd at herself: any stirring of her feelings made her blush (as if her feelings were improper).
 95   Of spirit so still and quiet, that her motion
 96   Blush'd at herself; and she, in spite of nature,
97. credit: virtuous reputation.
 97   Of years, of country, credit, every thing,
 98   To fall in love with what she fear'd to look on!
 99   It is a judgment maim'd and most imperfect
100. confess: concede (that), aver, or declare.
100   That will confess perfection so could err
101. must: i.e., the unmaimed judgment must.
101   Against all rules of nature, and must be driven
102. practices: plots.
102   To find out practises of cunning hell,
103. vouch: assert, affirm.
103   Why this should be. I therefore vouch again
104. blood: passions.
104   That with some mixtures powerful o'er the blood,
105. conjur'd to this effect: made thus efficacious by spells.
105   Or with some dram conjur'd to this effect,
106   He wrought upon her.

      DUKE
106                       To vouch this, is no proof,
107. more wider: i.e., fuller.
107   Without more wider and more overt test
108. thin habits: thin clothing; i.e., slight appearances.
108   Than these thin habits and poor likelihoods
109. modern: commonplace, insignificant. seeming: assumption, supposition. prefer: present.
109   Of modern seeming do prefer against him.

      First Senator
110   But, Othello, speak:
111   Did you by indirect and forced courses
112   Subdue and poison this young maid's affections?
113. question: conversation.
113   Or came it by request and such fair question
114   As soul to soul affordeth?

      OTHELLO
                               I do beseech you,
115   Send for the lady to the Sagittary,
116   And let her speak of me before her father:
117   If you do find me foul in her report,
118   The trust, the office I do hold of you,
119   Not only take away, but let your sentence
120   Even fall upon my life.

      DUKE
                             Fetch Desdemona hither.

      OTHELLO
121   Ancient, conduct them: you best know the place.

           [Exeunt IAGO and Attendants.]

122   And, till she come, as truly as to heaven
123. vices of my blood: my human failings. blood: passions.
123   I do confess the vices of my blood,
124. justly: exactly, truthfully.
124   So justly to your grave ears I'll present
125   How I did thrive in this fair lady's love,
126   And she in mine.
Othello tells his life story to Brabantio and Desdemona, by Sir John Gilbert
"I ran it through, even from my boyish days"


      DUKE
127   Say it, Othello.

      OTHELLO
128   Her father loved me; oft invited me;
129   Still question'd me the story of my life,
129. Still: Continually.

130   From year to year, the battles, sieges, fortunes,
131   That I have passed.
132   I ran it through, even from my boyish days,
133   To the very moment that he bade me tell it;
134   Wherein I spake of most disastrous chances,
135   Of moving accidents by flood and field
135.  moving accidents: frightening events.

136   Of hair-breadth scapes i' the imminent deadly breach,
136. imminent deadly: threatening death. breach: gap made in a fortification.

137   Of being taken by the insolent foe
138   And sold to slavery, of my redemption thence
139   And portance in my travels' history:
139. portance: conduct, behavior.

140   Wherein of antres vast and deserts idle,
140. antres: caves. idle: barren, empty.

141   Rough quarries, rocks and hills whose heads touch heaven
141. Rough quarries: rugged stone-masses.

142   It was my hint to speak, — such was the process;
142. hint: occasion. such was the process: i.e., in order to tell my story truthfully, I had to speak of such strange things.

143   And of the Cannibals that each other eat,
144   The Anthropophagi and men whose heads
144. Anthropophagi: man-eaters.

145   Do grow beneath their shoulders. This to hear
Sixteenth century woodcut showing a man with his face in his chest

146   Would Desdemona seriously incline:
147   But still the house-affairs would draw her thence:
148   Which ever as she could with haste dispatch,
149   She'ld come again, and with a greedy ear
150   Devour up my discourse: which I observing,
151   Took once a pliant hour, and found good means
152   To draw from her a prayer of earnest heart
152. prayer: request.

153   That I would all my pilgrimage dilate,
153. dilate: relate in detail.

154   Whereof by parcels she had something heard,
154. by parcels: by snatches, in bits and pieces.

155   But not intentively: I did consent,
155. intentively: with full and continuous attention.

156   And often did beguile her of her tears,
157   When I did speak of some distressful stroke
158   That my youth suffer'd. My story being done,
159   She gave me for my pains a world of sighs:
160   She swore, in faith, 'twas strange, 'twas passing strange,
161   'Twas pitiful, 'twas wondrous pitiful:
162   She wish'd she had not heard it, yet she wish'd
163   That heaven had made her such a man: she thank'd me,
163.  made her such a man: made such a man for her (to love).

164   And bade me, if I had a friend that loved her,
165   I should but teach him how to tell my story.
166   And that would woo her. Upon this hint I spake:
166. hint: opportunity.  I spake: i.e., I asked her to marry me.

167   She loved me for the dangers I had pass'd,
168   And I loved her that she did pity them.
169   This only is the witchcraft I have used:
170   Here comes the lady; let her witness it.

           Enter DESDEMONA, IAGO, ATTENDANTS.

      DUKE
171   I think this tale would win my daughter too.
172   Good Brabantio,
173   Take up this mangled matter at the best:
173. Take up this mangled matter at the best: Make the best of this complicated situation.

174   Men do their broken weapons rather use
175   Than their bare hands.

      BRABANTIO
Desdemona saying 'you are the lord of duty; I am hitherto your daughter: but here's my husband'
"but here's my husband"

                           I pray you, hear her speak:
176   If she confess that she was half the wooer,
177   Destruction on my head, if my bad blame
178   Light on the man! Come hither, gentle mistress:
179   Do you perceive in all this noble company
180   Where most you owe obedience?

      DESDEMONA
                         My noble father,
181   I do perceive here a divided duty:
182   To you I am bound for life and education;
182. education: upbringing.

183   My life and education both do learn me
183. learn: teach.

184   How to respect you; you are the lord of duty;
184. respect: regard.

185   I am hitherto your daughter: but here's my husband,
185. I am hitherto your daughter: i.e., until now I have owed all my obedience to you as my father.

186   And so much duty as my mother show'd
187   To you, preferring you before her father,
188   So much I challenge that I may profess
188. challenge: claim.

189   Due to the Moor, my lord.

      BRABANTIO
                                    God be with you! I have done.
189. God be with you: good-bye.

190   Please it your grace, on to the state affairs:
191   I had rather to adopt a child than get it.
191. get: beget. (If he had adopted her, he could tell himself that her bad behavior was the fault of her bad blood.)

192   Come hither, Moor:
193   I here do give thee that with all my heart
194   Which, but thou hast already, with all my heart
195   I would keep from thee. For your sake, jewel,
195. For your sake: on your account, because of what you have done.

196   I am glad at soul I have no other child:
197   For thy escape would teach me tyranny,
197. escape: transgression.

198   To hang clogs on them. I have done, my lord.
198. clogs: blocks of wood hung on criminals or animals to prevent their running away.


      DUKE
199   Let me speak like yourself, and lay a sentence,
199. like yourself: i.e., as you should in your proper temper. sentence: adage. (It's the rhymed part that follows.)

200   Which, as a grise or step, may help these lovers
200. grise: degree, step.

201   Into your favor.
202   When remedies are past, the griefs are ended
202. remedies: i.e., hopes of remedy.

203   By seeing the worst, which late on hopes depended.
203. which: i.e., the griefs. hopes: anticipations.

204   To mourn a mischief that is past and gone
204. mischief: injury.

205   Is the next way to draw new mischief on.
205. next: nearest.

206   What cannot be preserved when fortune takes
206. What: Whatever.

207   Patience her injury a mockery makes.
207. Patience . . . makes: patient endurance of a loss makes a mockery of Fortune's injury [and thus eases the pain].

208   The robb'd that smiles steals something from the thief;
209   He robs himself that spends a bootless grief.
209. spends a bootless grief: i.e., wastes time on useless grief.


      BRABANTIO
210   So let the Turk of Cyprus us beguile;
210-211. beguile . . . smile: Brabantio mocks the duke by also rhyming.

211   We lose it not, so long as we can smile.
212   He bears the sentence well that nothing bears
213   But the free comfort which from thence he hears,
213. free: i.e., unmixed with sorrow.

214   But he bears both the sentence and the sorrow
215   That, to pay grief, must of poor patience borrow.
212-215. He bears . . . borrow: i.e., your maxim does well for the person who finds in it only comfort free from sorrow; but anyone whose sorrow overwhelms his patience is left with his sorrow and the guilt of not having the patience to overcome it.

216   These sentences, to sugar, or to gall,
217   Being strong on both sides, are equivocal:
218   But words are words; I never yet did hear
219. pierced: i.e., relieved as by a surgeon's lancet.
219   That the bruised heart was pierced through the ear.
220   I humbly beseech you, proceed to the affairs of state.

      DUKE
221   The Turk with a most mighty preparation makes for
221. preparation: preparation for battle.

222   Cyprus. Othello, the fortitude of the place is best
222. fortitude: military strength.

223. substitute: deputy, representative.
223   known to you; and though we have there a substitute
224   of most allow'd sufficiency, yet opinion, a
224. allow'd: acknowledged.

225   sovereign mistress of effects, throws a more safer
224-225. opinion . . . effects: public opinion, a powerful arbiter of what needs to be done.

226   voice on you: you must therefore be content to
225-226. throws . . . you: says you are the safer choice.

227   slubber the gloss of your new fortunes with this
227. slubber: soil, sully.

228   more stubborn and boisterous expedition.
228. stubborn and boisterous: difficult and rough.


      OTHELLO
229   The tyrant custom, most grave senators,
230   Hath made the flinty and steel couch of war
231   My thrice-driven bed of down: I do agnize
231. thrice-driven: thrice-winnowed (to obtain the softest feathers). agnize: acknowledge, recognize.

232   A natural and prompt alacrity
232. alacrity: readiness.

233   I find in hardness, and do undertake
233. hardness: hardship.

234   These present wars against the Ottomites.
235   Most humbly therefore bending to your state,
235. bending to your state: i.e., bowing to your authority.

236   I crave fit disposition for my wife.
236. fit disposition: suitable provision.

237   Due reference of place and exhibition,
237. reference of place: assignment of residence. exhibition: allowance of money.

238   With such accommodation and besort
238. accommodation: apparel. besort: suitable company.

239   As levels with her breeding.
239. levels: equals, suits.


      DUKE
                                 If you please,
240   Be't at her father's.

      BRABANTIO
                           I'll not have it so.

      OTHELLO
241   Nor I.

      DESDEMONA
            Nor I; I would not there reside,
242   To put my father in impatient thoughts
243   By being in his eye. Most gracious duke,
244   To my unfolding lend your prosperous ear;
244. my unfolding: my revelation of what I really want. prosperous: favorable.

245   And let me find a charter in your voice,
245. charter: approval.

246   To assist my simpleness.

      DUKE
247   What would you, Desdemona?

      DESDEMONA
248   That I did love the Moor to live with him,
249   My downright violence and storm of fortunes
249. My . . . fortunes: my boldly aggressive action of taking my fortune by storm. (Instead of getting her father's permission and approval.)

250   May trumpet to the world. My heart's subdued
251   Even to the very quality of my lord:
250-251. subdu'd / Even to: brought completely into accord with. quality: nature, character.

252   I saw Othello's visage in his mind,
253   And to his honor and his valiant parts
253. parts: qualities.

254   Did I my soul and fortunes consecrate.
255   So that, dear lords, if I be left behind,
256   A moth of peace, and he go to the war,
256. moth: meek idle consumer, parasite.

257   The rites for which I love him are bereft me,
257. rites: i.e., Othello's performance as a warrior and leader of men, which make me love him.

258   And I a heavy interim shall support
259   By his dear absence. Let me go with him.
259. dear: emotionally costly.

Othello and Desdemona pleading to the Doge of Venice, by Karl BeckerOthello and Desdemona
pleading to the Doge of Venice,
by Karl Becker

      OTHELLO
260   Let her have your voices.
261   Vouch with me, heaven, I therefore beg it not,
262   To please the palate of my appetite,
263   Nor to comply with heat — the young affects
264   In me defunct — and proper satisfaction.
263-264. to comply . . .  defunct: to serve sexual appetite — since the excesses of youthful passion in me are over and done with. proper: personal, private.

265   But to be free and bounteous to her mind:
266   And heaven defend your good souls, that you think
266. defend: forbid.

267   I will your serious and great business scant
268   For she is with me: no, when light-wing'd toys
268. For: Because.

269   Of feather'd Cupid seel with wanton dullness
269. seel: blind. wonton: sensual.

270   My speculative and officed instruments,
270. My . . . instruments: My mental faculties when they have duties to perform.

271   That my disports corrupt and taint my business,
271. That: so that. disports: pastimes.

272   Let housewives make a skillet of my helm,
273   And all indign and base adversities
273. indign: unworthy, shameful.

274   Make head against my estimation!
274. Make head: raise an armed force. estimation: reputation.


      DUKE
275   Be it as you shall privately determine,
276   Either for her stay or going: the affair cries haste,
277   And speed must answer it.

      First Senator
                              You must away tonight.

      DESDEMONA
278   Tonight, my lord?

      DUKE
                        This night.

      OTHELLO
                                 With all my heart.

      DUKE
279   At nine i' the morning here we'll meet again.
280   Othello, leave some officer behind,
281   And he shall our commission bring to you;
282   With such things else of quality and respect
282. of quality and respect: pertaining to your rank and privilege.

283   As doth import you.
283. import: concern.


      OTHELLO
                        So please your grace, my ancient;
284   A man he is of honesty and trust.
284. honesty: honor.

285   To his conveyance I assign my wife,
286   With what else needful your good grace shall think
287   To be sent after me.

      DUKE
                         Let it be so.
288   Good night to every one.

           [To Brabantio.]

                                         And, noble signior,
289   If virtue no delighted beauty lack,
289. delighted: delightful.

290   Your son-in-law is far more fair than black.

      First Senator
291   Adieu, brave Moor, use Desdemona well.

      BRABANTIO
292   Look to her, Moor, if thou hast eyes to see:
293   She has deceived her father, and may thee.

           Exeunt [Duke, Senators, Officers, &c.]

      OTHELLO
294   My life upon her faith! Honest Iago,
295   My Desdemona must I leave to thee:
296   I prithee, let thy wife attend on her:
297   And bring them after in the best advantage.
297. in the best advantage: at the most favorable opportunity.

298   Come, Desdemona: I have but an hour
299   Of love, of worldly matters and direction,
299. direction: plans for the future.

300   To spend with thee: we must obey the time.

           Exit [with Desdemona].

      RODERIGO
301   Iago, —
Drawing of Roderigo and Iago
"I will incontinently drown myself"


      IAGO
302   What say'st thou, noble heart?

      RODERIGO
303   What will I do, thinkest thou?

      IAGO
304   Why, go to bed, and sleep.

      RODERIGO
305   I will incontinently drown myself.
305. incontinently: immediately, at once.


      IAGO
306   If thou dost, I shall never love thee after. Why,
307   thou silly gentleman?

      RODERIGO
308   It is silliness to live when to live is torment; and
309   then have we a prescription to die when death is
309. prescription: (1) perfect right; (2) doctor's order.

310   our physician.

      IAGO
311   O villainous! I have looked upon the world for four
311. villainous: wretched nonsense.

312   times seven years; and since I could distinguish
313   betwixt a benefit and an injury, I never found man
314   that knew how to love himself. Ere I would say, I
315   would drown myself for the love of a guinea-hen, I
315. guinea-hen: prostitute.

316   would change my humanity with a baboon.
316. change: exchange.


      RODERIGO
317   What should I do? I confess it is my shame to be so
318   fond; but it is not in my virtue to amend it.
318. fond: infatuated. virtue: strength, nature.


      IAGO
319   Virtue! a fig! 'tis in ourselves that we are thus or
320   thus. Our bodies are our gardens, to the which our
319-320. 'tis . . . thus: it is in our own power to make ourselves this or that.

321   wills are gardeners: so that if we will plant nettles,
322   or sow lettuce, set hyssop and weed up tine, supply
322. hyssop: a fragrant herb. tine: tares, a weed.

323   it with one gender of herbs, or distract it with many,
323. gender: kind. distract: pull to pieces.

324   either to have it sterile with idleness, or manured with
324. idleness: lack of cultivation. manured: fertilized.

325   industry, why, the power and corrigible authority of
325. corrigible: corrective.

326   this lies in our wills. If the beam of our lives had not
326. beam: balance beam.

327   one scale of reason to poise another of sensuality, the
327. poise: counterbalance.

328   blood and baseness of our natures would conduct us
328. blood and baseness: base passions.

329   to most preposterous conclusions: but we have
330   reason to cool our raging motions, our carnal
330. motions: desires, appetites.

331   stings, our unbitted lusts, whereof I take this that
331. unbitted: uncontrolled.

332   you call love to be a sect or scion.
332. sect or scion: cutting or offshoot.

      RODERIGO
Ian McKellen as Iago; Michael Grandage as Roderigo. Iago saying, 'if we will plant nettles'
"if we will plant nettles"


333   It cannot be!

      IAGO
334   It is merely a lust of the blood and a permission of
335   the will. Come, be a man. Drown thyself! drown
336   cats and blind puppies. I have professed me thy
337   friend and I confess me knit to thy deserving with
338   cables of perdurable toughness; I could never
338. perdurable: very durable, lasting.

339   better stead thee than now. Put money in thy
339. stead: serve, help.

340   purse; follow thou the wars; defeat thy favor with
340. defeat thy favor: alter your appearance.

341   an usurped beard; I say, put money in thy purse. It
341. usurped beard: false beard.

342   cannot be that Desdemona should long continue her
343   love to the Moor, — put money in thy purse, — nor he
344   his to her: it was a violent commencement, and thou
345   shalt see an answerable sequestration: — put but
345. answerable sequestration: correspondingly abrupt ending.

346   money in thy purse. These Moors are changeable in
347   their wills: fill thy purse with money: — the food
347. wills: carnal appetites, lusts.

348   that to him now is as luscious as locusts, shall be
348. locusts: the sweet fruit of the carob tree. . . . more

349   to him shortly as bitter as coloquintida. She must
349. coloquintida: colocynth, or "bitter apple," used as a purgative.

350   change for youth: when she is sated with his body,
351   she will find the error of her choice: she must
352   have change, she must: therefore put money in thy
353   purse. If thou wilt needs damn thyself, do it a
354   more delicate way than drowning. Make all the money
354. Make: raise, collect, get together.

355   thou canst: if sanctimony and a frail vow betwixt
355. sanctimony: religious bond or ceremony.

356   an erring barbarian and a super-subtle Venetian be not
356. super-subtle: highly refined and sensitive.

357   too hard for my wits and all the tribe of hell, thou
358   shalt enjoy her; therefore make money. A pox of
359   drowning thyself! it is clean out of the way: seek
360   thou rather to be hanged in compassing thy joy than
361   to be drowned and go without her.

      RODERIGO
362   Wilt thou be fast to my hopes, if I depend on
362. fast: true.

363   the issue?

      IAGO
364   Thou art sure of me: — go, make money: — I have told
365   thee often, and I re-tell thee again and again, I
366   hate the Moor: my cause is hearted; thine hath no
366. hearted: rooted in my heart, i.e., deeply and passionately felt.

367   less reason. Let us be conjunctive in our revenge
367. conjunctive: united.

368   against him: if thou canst cuckold him, thou dost
369   thyself a pleasure, me a sport. There are many
370   events in the womb of time which will be delivered.
371   Traverse! go, provide thy money. We will have more
371. Traverse: go forward (a military term).

372   of this tomorrow. Adieu.

      RODERIGO
373   Where shall we meet i' the morning?

      IAGO
374   At my lodging.

      RODERIGO
375   I'll be with thee betimes.
375. betimes: first thing in the morning.


      IAGO
376   Go to; farewell. Do you hear, Roderigo?
376. Go to: it's ok, forget about it, get out of here, etc. Do you hear?: listen up.


      RODERIGO
377   What say you?

      IAGO
378   No more of drowning, do you hear?

      RODERIGO
379   I am chang'd.

      IAGO
380   Go to, farewell. Put money enough in your
381   purse.

      RODERIGO
382   I'll sell all my land.

           Exit.

      IAGO
383   Thus do I ever make my fool my purse:
384   For I mine own gain'd knowledge should profane,
385   If I would time expend with such a snipe,
385. snipe: woodcock, a proverbially stupid bird.

386   But for my sport and profit. I hate the Moor:
387   And it is thought abroad, that 'twixt my sheets
387. it is thought abroad: there is gossip.

388   He has done my office: I know not if't be true;
388. done my office: done what I am entitled to do (have sex with my wife).

389   But I, for mere suspicion in that kind,
390   Will do as if for surety. He holds me well;
390. do as if for surety: act as if on the basis of proven fact.

391   The better shall my purpose work on him.
392   Cassio's a proper man: let me see now:
392. proper: handsome.

393   To get his place and to plume up my will
393. plume up my will: pamper my ego.

394   In double knavery — How, how? Let's see: —
395   After some time, to abuse Othello's ear
396   That he is too familiar with his wife.
396. he: i.e., Cassio. his wife: i.e., Othello's wife.

397   He hath a person and a smooth dispose
397. dispose: manner, bearing.

398   To be suspected, framed to make women false.
399   The Moor is of a free and open nature,
399. free: frank, generous. open: unsuspicious.

400   That thinks men honest that but seem to be so,
401   And will as tenderly be led by the nose
401. tenderly: readily.

402   As asses are.
403   I have't. It is engender'd. Hell and night
404   Must bring this monstrous birth to the world's light.

           [Exit.]