Philip Weller caricature
Philip and Weller hugging

Welcome to my web site, now under development for more than twenty years.   
-- Philip Weller, November 13, 1941 - February 1, 2021
Dr. Weller, an Eastern Washington University professor of English and Shakespearean scholar for more than 50 years.

Pages from Plutarch, Shakespeare's Source


Julius Caesar

     Sir Thomas North's translation of Plutarch's Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans was Shakespeare's primary source for Julius Caesar. The HTML facsimile pages presented here include the marginal notes, which are reproduced in the index.


from"The Life of Julius Caesar":
   Page 56 — Caesars feasting of the Romanes. | The muster taken of the Romanes. | Caesar Consull the fourth time. | Battell fought bewixt Caesar and the young Pompeyes, by the city of Munda.
   Page 57 — Caesars victory of the sonnes of Pompey. | Caesars triumphe of Pompeis sonnes. | Caesar Dictator perpetuall.
   Page 58 — The temple of clemency, dedicated unto Caesar, for his curtesie. | Cassius and Brutus Praetors. | Caesars saying of death. | Good will of subjectes, the best gard and safety for Princes.
   Page 59 — Caninius Rebilius Consull for one day. | Anienes, Tiber flu.
   Page 60 — Caesar reformed the inequality of the yeare. | Mercedonius, mensis intercularis. | Why Caesar was hated.
   Page 61
   Page 62 — The feast Lupercalia. | Antonius being Consull, was one of the Lupercalians. | Antonius presented the Diademe to Caesar.
   Page 63 — Caesar saved Marcus Brutus life, after the battell of Pharsalia. | Brutus conspireth against Caesar. | Cassius stirreth up Brutus against Caesar.
   Page 64 — Predictions, and foreshewes of Caesars death. | Caesars day of his death prognosticated by a Soothsayer.
   Page 65 — The dreame of Calpurnia, Caesars wife. | Decius Brutus Albinus perswasion to Caesar.
   Page 66 — Decius Brutus brought Caesar into the Senate house. | The tokens of the conspiracy against Caesar. | The place where Caesar was slaine.
   Page 67 — Antonius, Caesars faithfull frend. | Casca, the first that strake at Caesar.
   Page 68 — Caesar slaine and had 23 wounds apon him. | The murtherers of Caesar doe goe to the Capitoll.
   Page 69 — Caesars funeralls. | Cinnaes dreame of Caesar.
   Page 70 — The murther of Cinna. | Caesar 56 yere olde at his death. | The revenge of Caesars death. | Cassius being overthrowen at the battell of Philippes, slue himself with the selfe same sword wherewith he strake Caesar. | Wonders seene in the element after Caesars death.
   Page 71 — A great Comet. | Brutus vision. | A spirit appeared unto Brutus. | The second appearing of the spirit, unto Brutus.


from"The Life of Marcus Tullius Cicero":
   Page 362 —Octavius Caesar sueth to be Consul. | Octavius Caesar forsaketh Cicero. | Note the ficklnes of youth. | The meeting of the Triumviri: Antonius, Lepidus, Octavius Caesar.
   Page 363 —Cicero appointed to be slaine. | Quintus Cicero slaine.


  from"The Life of Marcus Antonius":
   Page 10 —Antonius abominable life. | Antonius laid up his stomack before the whole assembly. | Antonius insolency.
   Page 11 —Caesar, and Lepidus, Consuls. | Antonius byeth Pompeys house. | Antonius married Fulvia, Codius widow. | Fulvia ruled Antonius, at home, and abroad.
   Page 12 —Caesar, and Antonius, Consuls. | Antonius unwittingly gave Caesars enemies occasion to conspire against him.
   Page 13 —Antonius Lupercian putteth the diademe upon Caesars head. | Brutus and Cassius conspire Caesars death.
   Page 14 —Consultation about the murther of Antonius with Caesar. | Antonius maketh uprore among the people, for the murther of Caesar.
   Page 15 —Calpurnia, Caesars wife. | Charonites, why so called. | M. Antonius Consul. Caius Antonius Praetor. Lucius Antonius Tribune: all three brethern.
   Page 16—Variance betwixt Antonius and Octavius Caesar, heire unto Iulius Caesar. | Octavius Caesar, joyned in friendship with Cicero. | Antonius and Octavius become friends. | Antonius dreame.
   Page 17—Antonius judged an enemy by the Senate. | Hircius and Pansa Consuls. | Antonius overthrowen in battell by the citie of Modena. | Antonius patient in adversitie. | Antonius hardnes in adversitie, notwithstanding his fine bringing up.
   Page 18—Antonius wan all Lepidus army from him. | Varius, surnamed Cotylon.
   Page 19—The conspiracie and meeting of Caesar, Antonius, and Lepidus. | The proscriptions of the Triumviri. | Antonius cruelty unto Cicero.
   Page 20—Lucius Caesars life saved, by his sister. | Antonius riot in his Triumvirate. | The praise of Pompey the great.
   Page 21—The valliantnes of Antonius against Brutus. | The death of Cassius. | Brutus slue him selfe. | Antonius gave honorable buriall unto Brutus.

from"The Life of Marcus Brutus":
   Page 188—The first cause of Cassius malice against Caesar. | Caesar suspected Brutus. | Caesars saying of Brutus.
   Page 189—Cassius inceneth Brutus against Caesar. | Cassius Lions at Megara. | Cassius an enemie of tyrans. | How Brutus was incensed against Caesar.
   Page 190—Cassius praieth Brutus first, to helpe him to put downe the tyran.
   Page 191—In an other place they cal him Quintus. | Brutus maketh Ligarius one of the conspiracie. | They do hide the conspiracy against Caesar, from Cicero.
   Page 192—Civill warre worse then tyrannicall government. | The wonderfull faith and secresie of the Conspirators of Caesars death.
   Page 193—Porcia, Catoes daughter, wife unto Brutus. | Bibulus booke of Brutus actes. | Porcia studied in Philosophie. | The corage of Porcia. | Great difference betwext a wife and a harlot. | Porciaes words unto her husband Brutus.
   Page 194
   Page 195—The wonderful constancy of the conspirators, in killing of Caesar. | Sundrie misfortunes to have broken of the enterprise.
   Page 196—The weakenes of Porcia, notwithstanding her former corage.
   Page 197—Brutus with his countenaunce encoraged his fearefull consortes. | In Caesars life it is sayd, it was Decius Brutus Albinus, that kept Antonius with a talke without. | In Caesars life he is called Metellus Cimber. | The murther of Caesar. | Casca, the first that wounded him.
   Page 198—Why Antonius was not slayne with Caesar. | Brutus with his consorts went unto the Capitoll.
   Page 199—Honors decreed for the murtherers of Caesar.
   Page 200—Caesars will, and funeralls. | Brutus committed two great faults after Caesars death. | Antonius funerall oration for Caesar.
   Page 201—The straunge dreame of Cinna the Poet. | The murder of Cinna the Poet, being mistaken for an other of that name. | Brutus and his consorts doe flye from Rome.
   Page 202—Brutus playes and sportes at Rome in his absence. | Octavius Caesars comming to Rome.
   Page 203—Brutus reproved Cicero, for taking part with Octavius Caesar. | Porciaes sorowfull returne to Rome for the absence of her husband Brutus.
   Page 204—The story of Hector and Andromachè, set forth in painted tables. | How Brutus bestowed his time in Athens. | Brutus commendeth Ciceroes sonne.
   Page 205—Brutus prepareth him selfe to warre.
   Page 206—A straunge disease tooke Brutus at Dyrrachium. | Why by snow this hungry disease taketh men that are wearied with travell. | Brutus thankfulnes, and clemency.
   Page 207—C. Antonius yelded unto Brutus. | Octavius Caesar joyneth with Antonius.
   Page 208—Brutus accused, and condemned, by Octavius Caesars meanes, for the death of Iulius Caesar. | The Triumvirate. | C. Antonius murdered.
   Page 209—Brutus and Cassius doe joyne armies together. | The sharpe and cruell condicions of Cassius.
   Page 210—Brutus gentle and fayer condicions. | Brutus intent good, if he had overcomen. | Antonius testimonie of Brutus.
   Page 211—Brutus noble mind to his contry. | Brutus, a true prophet of Antonius. | Cassius wanne the citie of Rhodes.
   Page 212—Brutus jests in Lycia. | The citie of Xanthus set a fire. | The desperat ende of the Xanthians.
   Page 213
   Page 214—The Patareians doe yeld them selves unto Brutus. | The extreme covetousnes and crueltie of Cassius to the Rhodians. | Brutus clemency unto the Lycians. | Theodotus borne in Chio a Rethoritian Scholemaister to Ptolomy the young king of Ægypt. | Theodotus saying: A dead man biteth not.
   Page 215—Theodotus Chian, the Rethoritian that gave counsell to kill Pompey, was put to death by Brutus. | Brutus and Cassius doe meete at the citie of Sardis. | Brutus and Cassius complaints one unto the other. | M. Phaonius a follower of Cato.
   Page 216—Cynick Philosophers counted doggs.
   Page 217—Iulius Caesar slayne at the Ides of March. | The wonderfull constancy of Brutus, in matters of justice and equitie. | Brutus care and watching. | A spirit appeared unto Brutus in the citie of Sardis.
   Page 218—Cassius opinion of spirits, after the Epicurian sect. | The cause of dreames. | A wonderfull signe by two Eagles.
   Page 219—Brutus and Cassius camps before the citie of Phillippes: against Octavius Caesar, and Antonius. | Brutus souldiers bravely armed. | Brutus opinion for the bravery of souldiers, in their armor and weapons.
   Page 220—Unlucky signes unto Cassius. | Cassius and Brutus opinions about battell.
   Page 221—Atellius opinion for the battell. | Cassius words unto Messala, the night before the battell. | Brutus and Cassius talke before the battell.
   Page 222—Brutus aunswer to Cassius. | The battell at Philippes, against Octavius Caesar, and Antonius.
   Page 223
   Page 224—Octavius Caesar falsely reported to be slaine at the battell of Philippes. | Cassius misfortune.
   Page 225—Cassius offended with the sundrie errors Brutus and his men committed in battell. | Cassius valliantes in warres.
   Page 226—The importance of error and mistaking in warres. | Cassius slaine by his man Pindarus. | The death of Titinnius.
   Page 227—The number of men slaine, at the batel of Philippes.
   Page 228—Brutus clemency and curtesie.
   Page 229—Brutus fault wisely excused by Plutarke.
   Page 230—Brutus victorie by sea. | Wonderfull famine among Caesars souldiers by sea. | The ignorance of Brutus victorie by sea, was his utter destruction. | The evill spirit appeared againe unto Brutus.
   Page 231—Straunge sightes before Brutus second battell. | Brutus second battell.
   Page 232—Brutus valliantnes and great skill in warres. | The death of the valliant young man Cato, the sonne of Marcus Cato. | The fidelitie of Lucilius unto Brutus.
   Page 233—Brutus flying. | Appian meaneth this by Antonius.
   Page 234—The death of Statilius. | Brutus saying of flying with hands, and not with feete.
   Page 235—Brutus slue himself. | Strato, Brutus familiar and frend. | Strato received into Caesars frendship. | Messala Corvinus, Brutus frend. | Brutus funeralls.
   Page 236—Porcia, Brutus wife, killed her selfe with burning coles.


  "The Comparison of Dion with Brutus":
   Page 236
   Page 237
   Page 238—In what things Dion was inferior to Brutus.
   Page 239
   Page 240—Brutus honored of his enemies after his death. | Brutus image or statue standing in brasse in Millaine, was preserved and kept by Octavius Caesar.